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Hanafi Madhab and Smoking

Hanafi Madhab and Smoking

Salam

Please find below a presentation of a range of opinions from the hanafi school on the issue of smoking, extracted and adapted from Sh. Salah Abul Hajj’s work ‘Al-Bayan’ (p.185-186).
***

There are a varying opinions within the hanafi school on the issue of smoking, some of the scholars have said that it is:

 

 

i) Unlawful (Haram), this was the position of al-Shurunbulali (d.1069) in his ‘Sharh al-Wahbaniyyah’ wherein he said:

And forbidden is the selling of tobacco and its smoking[1]

ii) Disliked (Makruh), this was the position of al-Luknawi (d.1304) as mentioned in his ‘Tarwih al-Janan bi Hukm Sharb al-Dukhan’ and ‘Zajr Arbab al-Rayyan an Sharb al-Dukhan’. He said[2]:

If the karahah is tahrimi, then the committing of it is from the major sins, because the makruh tahrimi is close the unlawful (haram) as was clearly stated by a group of the notable (scholars), even if it is regarded by some as being from the minor sins.

If it is tanzihi its committal is a minor sin, but when done whilst being content with it, and its becoming a habit is a major sin. It therefore becomes apparent the smoking of tobacco necessitates the committing of a major sin according to the view of the majority of scholars, and that is what the evidences point towards.

iii) Permissible (Mubah), this was the position of Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (d.1143) in his ‘Al-Sulh bain al-Ikhwan fi Ibahah Sharb al-Dukhan’ wherein he said whilst discussing whether smoking is unlawful or disliked:

Unlawful and disliked are two legal rulings which require a proof, and there is no proof for it. For it is not established that it intoxicates…nor that it causes harm. But rather benefits have been proven for it, it therefore falls under the principle: The basis of things is permissibility.[3]

Note: It has however been established by medical experts that smoking is in actual fact harmful to a persons health, and Allah knows best.

[1] See Rad al-Muhtar (2/395)
[2] In Tarwih al-Janan (p.22)
[3] See Rad al-Muhtar (6/458)

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Tuhfa al-Mubtadi: Beginners Text on Hanafi Fiqh from al-Ahsa

Salam. Please find below the beginners text currently studied by hanafi students in al-Ahsa. We have been working on this project for some time, and we have compiled a brief commentary from the one authored by Sh. Yahya al-Mulla. We hope you will also find it useful as a starting point for beginners in their study of the hanafi school, as it can be studied in a short space of time and covers only the areas of purification and prayer. The biography of the author (Sh. Ibrahim bin Hasan al-Mulla) can be found elsewhere on this blog. This project was begun on the 29th of Ramadan/20th of October (2006) in Madinah al-Munawarah in the Masjid al-Nabawi al-Sharif.
Note: This text was written around 400 years ago, compare it to Nur al-Idah and reflect on their respective suitabilities for starting off students of knowledge, or running classes for those who want to know their basics, and dont have time to spend a year or more studying a ‘beginners’ text.

***
In the Name of Allah the most Merciful, most Kind, Salutations and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad the Master of the Messengers and the most superior of Allahs entire creation, and upon his good family and noble companions and those that follow them with goodness till the last day. To proceed:

This is a brief simple (text) regarding the rulings of the prayer called: Tuhfah al-Mubtadi which the mature/responsible person cannot do without if his resolve is deficient for that which is more detailed than it

He (glorified is He) is asked to benefit the Muslims by it and make it solely for His sake, indeed He is the greatest of Lords and greatest of helpers.

It is reported from the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) that he said: ‘The Prayer is the pillar of the religion (deen) , he who established it has established the religion (deen), he who leaves it has destroyed the religion (deen)’ we ask Him (subhanahu wa taala) for help with that which He has made us responsible for, and to make us from the rightly guided ones. And we say and with/through Allah is success:

Know that the prayer has obligatory (faraid), compulsory (wajibat), recommended (sunan) and desirable (mustahab) actions. It also has invalidators (mufsidat) and disliked actions.

[Obligatory (Faraid) Acts of the Prayer]
As for the obligatory acts they are of two types: Obligatory acts which are outside the form of the prayer and are called conditions (shurut), and obligatory acts (faraid) within the prayer called pillars (arkan)

[Conditions (shurut) of the Prayer]
From the first category are eight things:
1- The cleanliness/purity of the body from ritual impurity (hadath) and filth (khabath)
2- Purity/Cleanliness of clothing
3- Cleanliness of the place
4- Covering of nakedness
5- Facing the direction of prayer (qiblah)
6- Time
7- Intention
8- The Opening takbir

Section [Regarding the Cleanliness from Ritual Impurity (hadath)]
Achieving cleanliness from minor ritual impurity is achieved by washing (wudu) and from major ritual impurity by bathing (ghusl)

[The Obligatory Acts (faraid) of Wudu]
As for wudu it has four obligatory acts:
1- Washing the face, which is the area from usual/normal hairline to below the chin , and that which is between the earlobes
2- Washing the hands up to and including the elbows
3- Wiping a quarter of the head
4- Washing the feet along with the ankles, it is compulsory to wash the skin not covered by hair , likewise the outer surface of a thick beard .

[The Recommended Acts (sunan) of Washing (wudu)]
Its recommended acts are:
1- Beginning the wudu with the Basmalah
2- And by washing his hands up to the wrists three times
3- The toothstick
4- Washing the mouth
5- Rinsing the nose
6- Combing the beard
7- Interlacing the fingers
8- Washing three times
9- Wiping the whole head once
10- And the ears with its water
11- Intention
12- The order mentioned in the texts
13- Continuity

[The Desirable Acts of Wudu]
As for its desirable acts (mustahab) they are:
1- Beginning with the right side
2- Wiping the neck
3- Reciting the transmitted invocations during wudu
4- To say after finishing and standing facing the direction of prayer:
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَابِينَ، واجْعَلْنِي مِنَ المُتَطَهِّرِينَ. سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ

[The Disliked Acts (Makruhat) of Wudu]
Its disliked acts are:
1- To use excess water
2- To use too little water
3- Talking with normal speech
4- Seeking help from another person
5- Exceeding washing three times

Section [That Which Nullifies Wudu and That Which Does Not Nullify It]
The nullifiers of wudu are:
1- That which exits from the private parts
2- Impurity/Filth exiting from other than the private parts if the impurity/filth flows to a place which it is compulsory to cleanse in wudu or ghusl
3- Vomiting the like of food and water if it is a mouthful, not the vomiting of phlegm even if it is a large amount
4- Loss of consciousness
5- Insanity
6- Intoxication
7- Sleeping lying down or leaning on one of the buttocks, not the sleep of the one firmly seated nor the sleep of the one in prayer
8- Loud laughter of an adult in a complete prayer
9- Contact of the private parts not the touching of the private parts nor the touching of a woman , nor the exiting of a worm from a wound

Section [The Rulings of Istinja]
Istinja is recommended with the likes of a stone by means of which cleanliness can be achieved, there is no specific number required, and washing is superior

[What is Istinja Disliked With]
It is disliked: with a bone, dung, and the right hand

[What is Disliked when Relieving Oneself]
It is disliked : to face the qiblah in the bathroom , likewise to turn ones back to it, to face the sun and moon , to face the wind , to relieve oneself in the street, gathering places of people and below a tree

[What is Recommended when Entering the Bathroom and When Leaving It]
It is recommended to precede it with the tasmiyah and istiadhah , entering with the left, and exiting with the right, opposite to the masjid. It is recommended that he say when he leaves:

غُفْرَانَكَ three times
الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنِّي الأَذَى وَعَافَانِي

[When is it Compulsory to Use Water]
It is compulsory to use water if the filth exceeds the exit (point) and that which has exceeded is more than the amount of a dirham .

Section [The Rulings of Bathing (Ghusl)]
[The Obligatory Acts of Ghusl]

As for ghusl, its obligatory acts are:
1- Rinsing the mouth
2- Rinsing the nose
3- Washing all of the body even inside the foreskin .
It is not compulsory for a woman to undo her braids , nor to wet them if the roots have been wet.

[The Recommended Acts of Ghusl]
Its recommended acts are:
1- To wash the hands
2- Private parts
3- And filth on the body, then
4- Perform wudu and then pour water on the body three times

[That Which Necessitates Ghusl]
That which necessitates ghusl is:
1- The emission of semen with a contracting motion when exiting/separating
2- The entering of the head of the male private part in the front or rear passageway upon both people
3- The one awakening seeing semen or pre seminal fluid
4- The termination of the menstruation cycle
5- And Post childbirth bleeding
It is not necessary to perform ghusl with the emission of pre seminal fluid and wadi , nor an erotic dream without finding any wetness

[When is Bathing Recommended]
It is recommended to bathe for Friday prayer, the two Eids and Ihram

Section [The Waters with Which Purification is Permissible]
It is permissible to make wudu and ghusl with all pure water such as rain and water found on land, even if it changes due to being stagnant, or is changed by water which is (still regarded as) water , or with something pure which the water dominates , such as Ushnan , soap and saffron.

[That Which Purification Is Not Permissible With]
It is not permissible to perform wudu with water one of whose attributes has changed due to an impurity, nor with a small amount of stagnant water in which impurity has fallen. It is regarded as small if: it is water which is not ten cubits by ten cubits.

[Used Water]
Purification is not permissible with water used to remove a state of impurity, nor to renew wudu, the water is pure but not purifying.

[The Ruling of Flowing and Large Amount of Water]
Flowing (water) does not become impure, and likewise that which reaches ten cubits by ten cubits except if its attributes change.

Section [Regarding Purification from Impurity/Khabath]
It is a condition that the body of the one offering prayer, his clothing and place be pure from all filth which prevents the permissibility of the prayer.

[Preventative Filth]
It is: that which exceeds the size of a dirham from the heavy impurity such as the urine of whose meat is not eaten, blood, alcohol/wine, dung/faeces. From the light filth it is the area of a quarter of the clothing , such as the urine whose meat is eaten and a horse.

[That Which is Excused From Filth/Najasah]
The amount of heavy (filth) which is excused is the size of a dirham and less, and from the light filth less than a quarter of the cloth. If the prayer is offered it is valid.

Section [Regarding the Covering of Nakedness]
The nakedness of a man is: From below his navel to below his knee’s, a slavegirls nakedness (is similar to that of a man) with the addition of the back and stomach. All of a free womans body is nakedness except for the face, hands and feet. The prayer is invalidated by the exposing of a quarter of a bodypart from those (that are part of the) nakedness, not less than this, so if a quarter of a mans knee, or a quarter of a womans shin or ear is exposed both of their prayers are invalidated.

Section [The Times of The Prayer]
The time of the dawn (subh) is: from the true dawn, which is the horizontal whiteness (al-mutaridu) on the horizon until the rising of the sun.

Al-Dhuhr is: from zawal until the shadow reaches twice its length except for the shade at midday.

Al-Asr is: from the reaching of the shadow twice its length until maghrib

The time of al-Maghrib is: from it until the setting/disappearance of the white twilight following the red twighlight

Al-Isha: is from the setting/disappearance of the white twilight until the true dawn.

Section [Regarding Facing the Direction of Prayer and the Intention]
Facing the direction (of prayer) is a condition except with regards/in the case of one in fear such as from an enemy or predatory animal , and an ill person who does not have/find anyone to turn/face him towards the qibla, their qiblah is the direction that they are able to face.
The direction of prayer of the one who is unaware of it is the direction he estimates .
As for the intention its meaning is to desire to perform an action. It is a condition that the intention should be with the heart , articulating with the tongue is recommended .
It is necessary to specify in the fard and wajib prayers as opposed to the sunan and nawafil for which a general intention for prayer suffices.

Section [Regarding the Integrals of the Prayer]
As for the second category from the faraid of the prayer, they are other than the tahrimah, as it is from the first category and is a condition, but it has similarity/semblance with the integrals:

1- Standing for the one able to in the Fard and Wajib prayers
2- Reciting of a verse in two units (rakats) of a fard and all units of the witr and nafl prayers
3- Bowing
4- Sujud
5- The final sitting for the length of the tashahhud
6- The sequence of standing before bowing, and bowing before sujud
7- The one praying exiting (the prayer) with his own action

Section [The Compulsory Elements of The Prayer]
As for its compulsory acts:
1- Recitation of the Fatihah in other than the last 2 units of an obligatory prayer
2- Adding a chapter (surah) or that which is equivalent to it such as a long verse or three short verses
3- Observing order with a repeated action in the unit
4- The first sitting
5- The tashahhud in the two sittings
6- Exiting the prayer with the wording of salam
7- The Qunut of Witr
8- The Takbirs of the two Eids
9- Specifying the first two from the obligatory (prayer) for recitation
10- Stillness when bowing and prostrating
11- Loud and silent (recitation) in their places
12- Silence of the follower at the time of the Imams recitation
13- The prostration of forgetfulness (sujud al-sahw) due to leaving a compulsory act.

Section [The Recommended Acts of Prayer]
As for its recommended acts (they are):
1- The call to prayer (adhan)
2- The iqamah for the obligatory prayers after the entering of the time.
3- Raising the hands for the opening takbir
4- Raising both hands in the takbir of qunut in the witr
5- And the takbirs of the two Eids not in other than these
6- That it be for them man in line with his ears and for the woman in line with her shoulders
7- Spreading out the fingers when raising (the hands) between closing them tight and spreading them out
8- Loud recitation of the takbir by the Imam
9- The opening prayer (thana)
10- Seeking refuge for the recitation
11- Reciting the basmalah at the beginning of the fatihah not for the chapter (surah)
12- Reciting Amin silently in all of them
13- Placing the right hand on the left hand below the navel
14- The takbir of bowing
15- Reciting the tasbeeh three times
16- Straightening of the back (in ruku)
17- Grasping the knees with the hands
18- Spreading out the fingers in ruku
19- To place them (the knees) before the hands
20- Placing the hands before the face, in reverse order of when rising
21- Rising from bowing
22- The tasmee’ which is to say سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَه, the Imam alone says this
23- The tahmeed which is to say رَبَّنَا لَكَ الحَمْدُ the follower alone says this, the one praying by himself combines between them both
24- The takbir of sujud
25- The reciting of the tasbeeh three times
26- Separating the elbows from the sides and separating the arms from the ground, a woman lowers herself and attaches her stomach to her thighs
27- the takbir of sitting
28- the takbir of standing
29- spreading out the left foot and raising the right in both sittings, women are to adopt the tawarruk position
30- Spread/place the fingers on the thighs except when indicating/pointing at the time of the testimony/bearing witness
31- Sitting between the two sajda’s
32- Reciting the fatihah after/in other than the first two units of the obligatory prayer
33- Salutations upon the Prophet Allah Bless Him and Give Him Peace at the end of the final tashahud
34- Supplication (dua) with that which is transmitted regarding it
35- Salutations (salam) to the right and left

Section [The Desirable (Mustahab) Acts of Prayer]
As for its desirable acts (they are):
1- The one praying looking at the place of prostration when standing, the outer part of the feet when bowing, the side of the nose in prostration and the lap when sitting
2- To take out the hands from the sleeves at the time of the takbir
3- To refrain from coughing as much as is possible
4- To cover the mouth when yawning
5- Recitation with tartil
6- To have a gap the distance of four fingers between the feet when standing
7- Pointing with the index finger at the time of bearing witness to the Oneness (Tawhid)
8- To turn the face right and left when making salam
9- Standing at the time when hayy ala al-falah is said (In the Iqamah)
10- The Imam starting when Qad Qamatis Salah is said (in the Iqamah)

Section [The Invalidators of Prayer]
As for the invalidators of prayer (they are):
1- Any kind of speech even if a small (amount)
2- To give salutations deliberately
3- Or to reply to salutations with the tongue
4- A person praying correcting other than his Imam
5- Starting in other than the one that he is in
6- Groaning
7- Moaning
8- Crying audibly due to pain or a calamity, not if it is due to thinking of the next world (akhirah)
9- Clearing the throat without reason
10- Replying to someone who has sneezed
11- To respond to speech even if it be with zikr , such as if someone is informed of that which pleases him by says الحَمْدُ للهِ or that which saddens him by saying لاَ حَوْل وَلاَ قُـوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللهِ, it does not invalidate the prayer if he intends by it notifying/informing someone else that he is in the prayer 12- Reading from a copy of the Quran
13- Supplicating with that which is possible to ask from people
14- That he sleeps whilst reciting in the unit, in its bowing and prostration, likewise if he is overcome by sleep in either of them and he does not repeat
15- That he walks during the prayer the distance of two rows in one go
16- Eating and drinking, even if small amounts, even if between that which is between the teeth is the amount of a chickpea
17- Excessive movement such as tying a turban, wearing trousers, wrapping a waist cloth and such as scratching the body in one rukn with the hand three times consecutively raising the hand each time.

Section [The Disliked Acts of the Prayer]
As for its disliked acts (they are):
1- Fidgeting with the clothing and body
2- Cracking the fingers
3- Looking around by turning the neck
4- Placing the hands on the hips
5- Stretching
6- Squatting
7- Sitting cross legged without excuse
8- Yawning if one is able to restrain it
9- Closing the eyes
10- Raising the gaze to the sky
11- Moving stones except for the prostration once
12- Wiping dust from the forehead during the prayer
13- Spreading/placing the arms (in the sujud)
14- Raising the sleeves from the arms
15- Covering the feet in prostration for men
16- Returning the salam with the hand
17- A small amount of movement such as undoing the slit of the shirt or scratching the body once or more not in succession/consecutively
18- Knotting the hair
19- To raise the clothing and hang it
20- To leave the head uncovered except out of humility
21- To prostrate on the coil of the turban or part of ones clothing
22- Limiting (the prostration) to the forehead alone or the nose only without a reason
23- To cover the mouth
24- And the nose except when yawning
25- Placing something in the mouth which prevents the desirable recitation
26- The Imam standing in the niche , except due to the excuse of lack of space, as opposed to prostrating in it
27- The Imam alone being on a raised place from the congregation
28- Likewise all of the congregation on a raised place except the Imam
29- Wearing a garment with pictures
30- Prostrating on a picture on the carpet
31- That there be in front of someone, or next to him a picture of a living thing, except if it is small and is not evident to the one looking at it, or has had its head removed
32- Supporting (oneself) when rising upon something except due to an excuse
33- The sitting of rest
34- Leaning on the feet in turn except due to an excuse
35- Turning/swinging right and left
36- To spit
37- counting verses with the hand or prayer beads , not pressing down with the fingers
38- Praying towards the face of another person
39- Or towards fire
40- Reciting in the second unit a chapter previous (to the one recited)
41- Joining between two chapters between them which is one (chapter) in one unit or two units
42- Lengthening the recitation in the second more than the first in the obligatory prayers
43- Lengthening the prayer to the point that it becomes difficult for the congregation
44- Repeating a chapter in an unit of the obligatory prayer
45- Leaning against a wall or a pillar without an excuse in other than the optional
46- Standing behind a row in which there is a gap
47- Prayer in the street/road
48- Or on the land of another without his permission even if by indication
49- Praying whilst wearing household clothing
50- Or in the presence of food one desires
51- Or with filth which does not prevent the prayer, except if he fears the elapsing of the prayer time, or missing the congregation, if he does not fear. It is recommended for him not to cut off the prayer
52- Starting the prayer whilst withholding the call of nature , if someone experiences it during the prayer it is recommended for him to break the prayer

Section [Acts Permitted for the One Praying]
As for its permissible acts (they are):
1- Looking from the corner of the eyes without turning part of the face
2- Leveling the area of prostration
3- Killing a snake or scorpion during the prayer if someone fears harm from them, even with a number of strikes, If he feels safe from them it is disliked
4- To tie up the middle
5- To pray towards the back of someone who is speaking
6- To pray towards a copy of the Quran (mushaf)
7- Or a hanging sword
8- Or candle
9- Or burning lamp
10- On a carpet containing pictures not in the place of prostration
11- Praying with something in the mouth which does not prevent from the recitation which is recommended
12- Or in his hand something which does not prevent the recommended acts of placing
13- His breaking the prayer in the case of the theft of that which equals a dirham even if it is (the property) of another
14- The fear of wolves with regards to sheep
15- The prayer is also broken for fear of a blind person falling into a well or similar, not due to the call of the parent except for the call of help

Section [Sunnah’s before and after Prayer]
The legislated sunnahs before and after the obligatory prayer are of two categories, emphasized and non emphasized

[Emphasized Sunnahs]
The emphasized are:
1- Two before Fajr
2- Four before Dhuhr
3- Two after it
4- Two after maghrib
5- Two after Isha
6- Four before Juma’h
7- And four after it

[Non Emphasized Sunnahs]
1- Four before the Asr prayer
2- Four before Isha
3- And after Isha
4- Six after maghrib

[Witr]
As for the witr it is compulsory (wajib) . It consists of three units . The qunut in it is wajib, its method (of performance) is to raise the hands and say takbir before the bowing of the third (unit) and supplicate with the well known invocation of qunut if he is able to, if not he says
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً، وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً، وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
or says:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي Three times

Lord, forgive and have mercy, for you are the best of those who are merciful.

Completed on Wednesday in the month of Jamadi al-Ula in the year 1259 by the pen of the one in need of the forgiveness of his Lord: Abdullah bin Abi Bakr ibn Sheikh Muhammad

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Evidences for Wudu

Evidences for Wudu

Salam
I recently managed to retrieve a copy of this article written many years ago. It is based mainly on the magnificent ‘Ilaa al-Sunan’ and to a lesser extent other notes in Urdu to the Jami al-Tirmidhi (as far as I remember). I hope it is of some benefit for those seeking the evidences for the wudu as understood by the hanafi Imams, please note that I have not had the opportunity to look over this piece for a number of years, therefore feel free to submit any corrections or queries. Please refer to the endnotes for detailed discussions on the status of the narrations mentioned. We ask Allah (the Exalted) to give us tawfiq to serve the other fiqh projects we have set out on, not least the matn of ‘Kifayah al-Mubtadi’ which we hope to edit and annotate in detail. Ameen.
***
A Description of the Prophetic Wudu
The prerequisite for offering prayers is to be in the state of purity. This is achieved by making wudu(ablution). If one does not make wudu then the prayer is invalid.

The Quran states:
O you who believe! When you rise up for salah, wash your faces, and your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles’[1]

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said :
The key to paradise is salah, and the key to as-salah is wudu[2]

One should begin by making the intention in ones heart that: I am making wudu to become pure. As the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Verily actions are by intentions and there is for everyone only what he intended[3]

If one does not make intention then the wudu is still valid, although one should try to make it.

One should then say ‘Bismillahi Walhamdulillahi’ (I begin in the name of Allah and all Praise is due to Allah) as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
There is no wudu for him who does not mention Allah’s name upon it[4]

Wash both hands up to the wrists 3 times, as many of the companions saw the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) do this[5]

Use a miswak for cleaning the teeth and then gargle the mouth 3 times as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If I did not consider it a burden on my Ummah, I would have commanded them to use siwak at the time of every wudu[6]

And if one does not have miswak then one can use ones fingers[7]

Then snuff water up into the nostrils three times with the right hand and clean the nose with the left hand, as Abu Wail bin Shaqiq bin Salamah said:
I saw Ali bin Abi Talib and Uthman bin Affan make wudu thrice, and they washed their mouths (separately) from snuffing watter, and they both said; This is how we saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) make wudu[8]

When one is fasting care must be taken not to exert in snuffing the water as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then exert in gargling and snuffing the water into your nose, except when you are fasting[9]

Then wash your face three times. Was from where the hairline usually begins to below the chin, and from one earlobe to the other taking care to wash the area between ear and beard. As Abdullah bin Zayd bin Asim was asked how the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) performed wudu, he demonstrated it wherein he:
Inserted his hands (in the vessel) and brought water out and washed his face three times..[10]

Then make khilal of the beard by running water through the beard with the fingers as Uthman said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard[11]

And Anas bin Malik narrates that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) when he made wudu used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said: This is what my Lord – The great and exalted – has ordered me to do’[12]

The wash both arms beginning with the right, up to and including the elbow three times. As Uthman was observed by Hurmaan bin Uthman that:
He washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way[13]

Then make khilal of the fingers by passing the left hand between the right hands fingers and vice versa. As the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then wipe (between) your fingers[14]

The moisten the hands and fingers and pass them over the head once. As Abdur Rahman bin Laylah said:
I saw Ali making wudu……and he wiped his head once, and then he said: this is how the Messenger of Allah (s) made wudu[15]

And Ibn Abbas saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) making wudu…and he said:
He wiped his head and ears with one wipe[16]

Then insert the fingers into the ears and wipe behind the ears with the inner part of the thumb.

Then wipe with neck with the back of the hands as Wail bin Hujr reports that:
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) wiped his head and his neck[17]

Then wash both feet including the ankles 3 times, rubbing in between the toes, starting with the right as Uthman (ra) when demonstrating the wudu of the Prophet (s):
Then he washed his right foot to the ankles 3 time and his left foot to the ankle 3 times[18]

And as al-Mustaurad said:
When the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger[19]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[20]:
It is not hidden that rubbing will become obligatory (fard) if the water does not reach parts of the limbs (that need to be washed) except by it, and if they reach all parts of the limbs without rubbing then it is recommended (mustahab)

One should also rub whilst washing the various limbs as Abdullah bin Zaid narrates that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu with two thirds of a mudd (of water) and rubbed over his forearms[21]

If one does make wudu out of order as described above then the wudu is still valid, although it is sunnah to follow the order as Miqdam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said:
I came to the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) with water for wudu, so he washed his hands three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears-their outsides and insides-and washed each of His feet three times[22]

And that a man came to the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) and asked about a man who made ghusl from janabah but water did not reach some parts of his body, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Wash that area and then pray[23]

One should wash the body parts one after the other leaving no time gap between them, however if one does wash some parts of his body at different times then wudu is valid as:
Ibn Umar (ra) urinated within the market, then made wudu and washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a funeral (janazah) so he entered the masjid then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it[24]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said::
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh al-Muhadhab (1/29): It is a Saheeh report and the deduction from it is correct, as Ibn Umar performed this in the presence of those attending the funeral prayer and no one condemned him for it.

One should begin with the right hand side such as the right arm, right foot etc when making wudu as Aishah (ra) said:
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs[25]

And as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If you make wudu then begin with the right[26]

One should take care not to be wasteful with with water when making wudu as Anas (ra) said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to make wudu with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa or up to five mudds[27]

And from among the bad habit which leads to this is to be immersed in conversation with friends and others whilst making wudu, such that a great amount of water is wasted due to our minds being focused on other than the wudu, the scholars have explained that it is disliked to talk when making wudu and that one should focus on making dhikr.

Sheikh al-Mubarakpuri comments[28] that the majority of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no specific fixed amount (of water) needed for wudu, which cannot be exceeded or diminished from.

Imam al-Nawawi said[29]:
The Muslims are agreed that the amount of water that is sufficient for wudu and ghusl is not fixed, but one can make use of a little and a large (amount)

One should wash also wash more than the required area in wudu as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
My nation will with bright streaks of light from the traces of wudu[30]

Abu Hurairah the said:
If he can lengthen his streak of light he should do so[31]

Abu Zarah reported that when Abu Hurairah made ablution he washed his arms above his elbows and his feet up to his calves, he was asked why do you do this? He said:
This is the extent of the embellishment[32]

It is sunnah to wash each body part three times, one may also wash them once or twice as it has been reported that the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) washed each body part once as in the hadith of Anas (ra) who said that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part once[33]

Abdullah bin Zaid said that:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu (washing each part) twice[34]

And in the hadith of Uthman (ra) informs us that
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part three times[35]

Sheikh al-Uthmani said[36]:
Its evidence…is that (washing the body parts) in wudu three times is the best, and it is the sunnah of the Prophets, and (to wash the body parts) twice is the medium way, and to wash the body parts once is rare…and when washing three times was His (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) sunnah and the sunnah of the Prophets (upon them be peace) it is apparent that He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) would consistently perform it, except rarely as is established from Him limiting to washing once or twice.

It is unlawful to exceed washing the body parts three times due to the lengthy hadith in which the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made wudu washing each body part three times and then said:
This is how wudu is done, whoever exceeds this has done wrong…[37]

Then make duaa after wudu, such as:
Ashadu al-lailaha illalah wahdahu la sharikala wa ashadu anna muhammad abduhu wa rasulu[38]

And :
Subhanaka allahumma wa bi hamdik la ilaha illa anta wahdaka la sharika lak astaghfiruka wa atub ilaik.[39]

Then one should dry their face and limbs after making wudu as Qais bin Sa’d (ra) said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) came to visit us….The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) made Ghusl after which we gave him a cloth with which he wiped his body[40]

Benefit: In the Fatawa Sirajiyyah (p.75) it is mentioned that to wash the hands is sunnah before and after eating, and in the Fatawa Qadi Khan (p.781) it says that the hands should be washed before eating but should not be dried with a towel as opposed to washing hands after eating when they should be dried.

Things That Invalidate Wudu:
Wudu is broken by anything that comes out of the two private parts such as urine stool and semen as Safwan bin Asal said:
The Messenger of Allaah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) used to order us not to remove our leather socks (khuffs) for three days and nights [when on a journey] except in the case of major impurity (janaabah). However [one could perform ritual ablution including wiping over the socks due to] sleeping, excreting or urinating[41]

Sleeping can also break ones wudu, but only in certain instances. If one sleeps lying down on the back or laying on the sides the wudu has been broken as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
The one who sleeps in sajda does not have to make wudu until he lies down, as if he lies down his posterior (?) will become loose[42]

And as the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
The eye is the drawstring of the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudu[43]

And if someone falls asleep sitting or standing or in sajda in salah their wudu in intact as Abu Hurayrah said:
The one who is…..asleep, and the one who is asleep standing and the one who is asleep in sajdah (is in) wudu, until they lie down (when asleep) and if they lie down then they make wudu[44]

Note: a woman falling asleep in sajdah will have to remake her wudu as the posture of a woman in sajda is different to that of a man, and allows wind to escape.

If a person in a complete salah laughs, loud enough to be heard by those near him then his wudu has broken and his salah is invalid, he must remake wudu and pray again. As Abu Musa said:
The Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) was praying when a man entered the masjid that had poor eyesight and fell into a hole in the masjid, and many of those praying laughed, and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) ordered those who had laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[45]

And a similar incident when the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Whoever laughed out loud then let him repeat his wudu and prayer[46]

And a similar narration is reported from the Prophet (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) ordering those who laughed to repeat their wudu and prayer[47]

And that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
He who laughed out loud in his prayer let him repeat his wudu and prayer[48]

Those wishing to read a lengthy and rigorous discussion on the authenticity of the above narrations are referred to Ilaa al-Sunan (1:132-144)

If one spits out blood then the wudu is broken if the predominance of the spittle consists of blood, as Ibn Sirin said to a man who spat out blood:
If the majority of the spit is blood then make wudu[49]

Similarly if one has a nosebleed that flows from the wound wudu is broken as:
Saeed ibn al-Musayyib had a nose bleed whilst praying so he went to the house of Umm Salamah wife of the Prophet (s), so he made wudu and did not speak and went back to build upon his prayer[50]

And as Tawus said:
If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer he should leave and make wudu and build upon what remains of his prayer[51]

Ibn Abd al-Barr said:[52]
It is well known from the madhab of Umar (ra) that it is obligatory to make wudu from a nosebleed if it is flowing, and likewise every flowing blood from the body, and similar to this is reported from Ali and Ibn Masud

Vomiting a mouthful will break the wudu as:
If a person has a nosebleed or vomits,…he should leave and make wudu…[53]

And as Ali (ra) said:
If someone has a nosebleed in his prayer or vomits he should make wudu and not speak and pray the remainder of his salah[54]

Things Which Do Not Invaliate The Wudu:
Touching ones private parts does not break wudu as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) was asked about a mans touching his private part. Should he make wudu? He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
And is it except a part of him?[55]

Imam al-Tahawi said:[56]
Some of the Companions from whom wudu for touching the private parts is reported, the opposite is also reported…And we do not know anyone from the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (s) who gave the fatwa for wudu from it except Ibn Umar, and he differed in this by the majority of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace).

For a more extensive discussion see Ilaa al-Sunan (1:161:172)

Touching a woman with or without desire does not break wudu as Aisah (ra) says:
The Messenger of Allah prayed and I was lying in front of Him as in front of janazah except that he when he…he would touch me with his foot[57]

Allamah al-Sindi said:[58]
And it is known that it was a touching without desire, and so the author used it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudu, as for touching with desire-its proof is of wudu not breaking, as the original is of wudu not breaking until a proof for breaking is produced by one who holds this view….and as for the words of Allah Taala: ‘Or if you touch the women’ (al-Nisa:43) the scholars of tafsir said it is marital relations and this is reported from our Master Abdullah bin Abbas.

Ibn Kathir said:[59]
It is authentically reported from more than one source that Abdullah Ibn Abbas held this opinion.

As for doubt about the wudu breaking, that is if one cannot recall the wudu having broken the wudu is intact. There is a hadith of the messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) which is often misunderstood, He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
If one of you feels something in his stomach and he is not sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not-then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell.[60]

This does not mean that if one knows that one has passed wind but that one has not heard or smelt anything that wudu is intact. Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani explaining this said:[61]
Therefore there is agreement (ijma) that if no noise or smell but passing wind is definitely known even then wudu will break. The proof for this is in Abu Dawud from which we know that He (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said this to one suffering from whispering

The hadith referred to is that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless Him and give Him peace) said:
Shaitan will come to one of you…and he thinks that he broke wudu and he didn’t, and if he finds this….[62]

With regards to the issue of doubt al-Shawkani said:[63]
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim: this hadith is a foundation (asl) from the foundations of Islam, and a great principle from the principles of the deen, and that things are adjudged to remain upon their original basis until the opposite of it is established and the incidental doubt does not harm it. And from the issue in which the hadith is mentioned, and that is the one who is not sure of taharah and has doubt of having broken it, he adjudged to remain on taharah, and there is no difference between the doubt occurring whilst in the salah or occurring outside the salah. And this is our madhab and the madhab of the majority of the scholars from the salaf and khalaf….And as for if he is sure of breaking wudu and thinks he might have taharah, it is obligatory for him to make wudu according to the consensus of the Muslims.

Al-Haskafi said:[64]
And if he is sure of taharah and has a doubt of breaking wudu or the opposite, the situation of which he sure is relied upon.
***
[1] Al-Maidah:6. The scholars have derived from this verse that the bare minimum for wudu to be achieved is to wash the above mentioned parts, however limiting oneself to this is not recommended
[2] Mishkat al-Masabih (1/39)
[3] al-Bukhari (1, 6684) Muslim (1907)
[4] Abu Dawud (1/24) and others, the authenticity of the hadith has been questioned by Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani in Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/231), however there are other authentic narrations with the same meaning mentioned in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/43). Mufti Taqi al-Uthmani concludes that the hadith is taken for tasmiyah to be recommended due to (i) many of the scholars weakening the hadith of tasmiyah with the precise wording above (ii) many of the companions describing the Prophet (s) manner of making wudu and none have mentioned the saying of tasmiyah (iii) al-Nimawi in Athar al-Sunan (P.30) cites a hadith from Mujam al-Saghir al-Tabarani that the Messenger of Allah (s) said; O Abu Hurairah if you make wudu then day Bismillah and Alhumdulillah…’ it was declared Hasan (well authenticated) by al-Haithami in Majma al-Zawaid (1/220). The point of note is that alhumdulillah is mentioned which no scholar regards as wajib, thereby indicating tasmiyah is sunnah. (iv) The hadith is interpreted to refer to the perfection of wudu.

Also please note that a number of the well known hanafi works mention that the wording is: Bismillah al-Adheem, wal-Hamdulillah ala Din al-Islam
[5] Fath al-Bari (1/255) Muslim (3/121)
[6] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/44): reported by Malik, Ahmad (2/400), al-Nasai, and it was declared Saheeh (rigorously authenticated) by Ibn Khuzaimah, and al-Bukhari (4/128) mentioned it in a taliq form as mentioned in Bulugh al-Maram
[7] See Sheikh Al-Uthmani’s discussion surrounding this in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/48) onwards
[8] Ibn al-Sakan in his Saheeh as was stated by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir, al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/31)
[9] Nail al-Awtar (1/178) of Imam al-Shawkani who cites Abu Hasan bin al-Qattan saying: This is Saheeh
[10] Muslim (1/123)
[11] al-Tirmidhi (31) and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (151,152) as in Bulugh al-Maram
[12] al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (3000) Abu Dawud (145), al-Haithami declared its narrators trustworthy in Majma al-Zawaid (1/96)
[13] al-Bukhari and Muslim
[14] al-Tirmidhi (38) he said the hadith was Hasan Saheeh, it was also declared Saheeh by al-Baghawi, Ibn al-Qattan, al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaimah
[15] Abu Dawud (115) the sanad is Saheeh as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[16] Abu Dawud (1/19) al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/155): al-Darqutni weakened it, but Abul Hasan bin al-Qattan replied to him and said: That which he weakened it by is not a weakness, the hadith is either saheeh or Hasan
[17] Majma al-Zawaid (1/232) al-Shawkani in Nail al-Awtar cites some narrations in proof of this and comments that the totality of the narrations can be taken to be relied upon. Al-Qinnawji in Badur Ilahlah (P.28) writes that Ibn al-Qayyims and al-Fairozabadi’s opinion that nothing with regards to this is saheeh is incorrect, as the hadith of wiping the neck due to the number of chains of narrations is Hasan
[18] al-Bukhari and Muslim
[19] al-Tirmidhi (4) who said: This hadith is gharib, we do not know it except from the hadith of Ibn Lahiah. Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir: But it is followed up by Laith bin Sa’d and Umru bin al-Harith, it is reported by al-Baihaqi and Abu Bishr al-Dawlabi, and al-Darqutni in Gharaib Malik from the chain of transmission of Ibn Wahb from three, and it was declared saheeh by Ibn Qattan, see Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)
[20] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/70)
[21] Ahmad (4/390) and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (118) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)
[22] Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/88) that its isnad is authentic and it is reported by al-Diya in al-Mukhtarah
[23] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (10/10561) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/273)
[24] al-Muwatta (66) declared Saheeh by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/91)
[25] al-Bukhari (1/29) Abd al-Razzaq (1/37) and Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/9)
[26] Reported by the four and declared Saheeh by Ibn Khuzaimah (176) see Bulugh al-Maram (P.9)
[27] Muslim (1/156) and others
[28] See Tuhfah al-Ahwadhi (1/61)
[29] See Sharh Saheeh Muslim (1/148)
[30] Muslim (246) al-Bukhari (150,136)
[31] Imam al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1/39) discusses these being words of Abu Hurairah and not the words of the Messenger of Allah (s), also see Sheikh al-Uthmani’s discussion in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/98-100) surrounding this
[32] Muslim (250)
[33] al-Bukhari (157)
[34] al-Bukhari (158)
[35] al-Bukhari (159)
[36] See Ilaa al-Sunan (1/73)
[37] Abu Dawud (135) al-Nasai (1/88) Ibn Khuzaimah (174) and Ibn Majah with Saheeh chains of narration as in Talkhis al-Habir of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[38] Muslim (1/122)
[39] al-Bannuri in Maarif al-Sunan (1/205) said: al-Nawawi said: reported by al-Nasai in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah in a marfu form and al-Haithami in his Zawaid (1/239) in a marfu form from Abu Saeed al-Khudari and He said its narrators are Saheeh except that al-Nasai after citing it in Amal al-Yaum wal-Laylah said: this is a mistake as the correct (version is that it is) mawquf
[40] al-Shawkani said in Nail al-Awtar (1/194): The narrators of Abu Dawud are Saheeh
[41] al-Nasai (127) al-Tirmidhi (96) and Ibn Khuzaimah (196) who declared it Saheeh, see Bulugh al-Maram (P.11) of Hafidh Ibn Hajar
[42] Ahmad (1/256) Abu Yaala (4/2487) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/132) and al-Haithami declared its narrators authentic in Majma al-Zawaid (1/247)
[43] Abu Dawud (203) Hafidh Ibn Hajr in Talkhis al-Habir comments that it was declared Hasan by al-Mundhiri, Ibn al-Salah and al-Nawawi
[44] al-Baihaqi (1/122) Hafidh Ibn Hajar declared its isnad to be good in Talkhis al-Habir (1/44)
[45] al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (2/82) that its narrators were trustworthy and there was a difference regarding some of them
[46] Imam Muhammad in Kitab al-Athar (1/421) Jawhar al-Naqi (1:42) Abu Hanifah in his Musnad (1/247) al-Darqutni (1/167) al-Baihaqi (1/146) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/134) This hadith by the chain of the Imam has come in musnad and mursal (form) and the narrators of Kitab al-Athar are well known and trustworthy
[47] Abd al-Razzaq (2/376) Nasb al-Rayah (1/50) Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/135) declares it to be Saheeh and its narrators to be that of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Nimawi said in Athar al-Sunan (1/36) that its isnad is mursal qawi
[48] al-Baihaqi, Jawhar al-Naqi (1/43) Sheikh al-Uthmani said in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/139): Ibn al-Jawzi weakened it due to Baqiyyah being mudallis, and perhaps he heard it from some of the weak ones but removed their names, Ibn al-Turkmani and al-Zaylai (1/62) answered this by saying that Baqiyyah is truthful (saduq), and has clarified hearing, and that a truthful mudallis if he clarifies this the allegation of tadlis is removed from him. I say: The rest of its narrators are trustworthy, as Ibn al-Jawzi’s silence indicates…and the hadith is Hasan and it has supporting narrations
[49] Abd al-Razzaq (1/146) declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkumani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1/140)
[50] Declared Saheeh by Ibn al-Turkmani in al-Jawhar al-Naqi as stated by Sheikh al-Uthmani in Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)
[51] Ibid
[52] Ilaa al-Sunan (1/120)
[53] Abd al-Razzaq (2/339) al-Nimawi declared it Saheeh in Athar al-Sunan (1/35)
[54] Ibn al-Turkmani declared it Saheeh in Jawhar al-Naqi, it was also declared Hasan by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/275)
[55] Abu Dawud (182) al-Nasai (159) Ibn Majah (483) al-Tirmidhi (85) Ahmad (4/22,23) Ibn Khuzaimah (34) Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/163) it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hibban, Ibn al-Madini said: It is the best of the hadith of Busrah, Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir (1:46): It was declared Saheeh by Amr bin Ali al-Fallas and he said: It is the most established of the hadith of Busrah and it was declared Saheeh by Ibn Hazm
[56] See Sharh Maani al-Athar (1/47)
[57] Declared Saheeh by Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (1/48) and al-Zaylai in Nasb al-Rayah (1/38)
[58] See Taliq al-Nasai (1/38)
[59] See Ghayah al-Maqsud (1/179)
[60] Muslim (361)
[61] Dars al-Tirmidhi (1/293)
[62] al-Bazzar (171) Kashf al-Astar (281) al-Haithami said in Majma al-Zawaid (1:242): reported by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (11556,11948) with a portion of (the hadith), and al-Bazzar with similar to it, and its narrators are those of the Saheeh
[63] Summarized in Ilaa al-Sunan (1:173) by Sheikh al-Uthmani citing from Nail al-Awtar (1/197,198)
[64] Durr al-Mukhtar (1/156)

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Is Tarâwîh Prayer 20 Raka’ât?

Compiled by Moulana Ebrahim Kadwa

Attested by Allamah Khalid Mahmood Saheb,

Director Islamic Academy, Manchester, UK.

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Introduction

It is an accepted fact among the true scholars of Islam that for centuries, tarâwîh prayer was and is an additional prayer (prayer) in the month of Ramadân. Only the Shî’as reject tarâwîh. The Ahl al-Hadith sect (or Salafis) also reject the fact that there is an additional prayer in Ramadân. Their belief is that tahajjud prayer which is performed during the latter portion of the night was brought forward in Ramadân. Thus there is no addition in Ramadân.

(The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) are a sect that do not ascribe to any mazhab nor do they follow any particular Imam. They claim to derive their rules directly from the hadith. Another name used for this sect is Ghair Muqallideen. The Salafis also hold similar beliefs. The term Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) used in this book refers in general to all those who hold such beliefs)

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) hold the same belief as the Shî’a regarding tarâwîh. (It is interesting to not that Mia Nazir Husain Delhwi, the first notable scholar of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) sect remarked to Moulana Thanaullah Amritsari that the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) are small Shias due to the disrespect created by not adopting the taqlid of the Imaams. See Tarikh Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) by Moulana Muhammad Ibrahim) According to them, the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) began performing his tahajjud earlier in Ramadân. This was then termed tarâwîh. According to this belief, there was no increase in the prayer of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) during Ramadân.

Prayer is the highest form of physical worship in Islam. When the month of Ramadân arrives, the common masses begin increasing their prayer by performing extra nawâfil (optional prayers). Can it then be possible for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) that he encouraged excess worship in this month while he himself did not increase his nightly worship? If he merely transferred his tahajjud prayer to an earlier time, then it implies that there was no increase in his prayer. So why did he ask his followers to perform an additional prayer in Ramadân?

There is a narration that indicates an increase in his prayer during the holy month. Hadrat Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said:

“Whoever stood in Ramadân (in worship) with Imân and to seek reward, all his past sins are forgiven.”(Sahih Muslim vol.1 pg.259)

This hadith indicates that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) encouraged the people to stand and worship Allâh during the month of Ramadân i.e. by performing prayer, but did he himself add anything to his prayer?

Is it suitable for the lofty status of this messenger that he encourages people to perform prayer in such a holy month while he himself does not do so? Any person that studies the life history of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), knows that there was no contradiction between his speech and his action. He practically demonstrated all that he spoke of. Even people that are generally far from Dîn, perform some extra worship during Ramadân. Thus it is impossible for him to have omitted extra prayer in Ramadân. He most certainly performed an additional prayer but was not strict in enforcing it.

Accordingly, the beliefs of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) and Shias are similar on this issue; the only difference being that the Shia have not claimed the eight rakaât of tahajjud being brought forward while the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) have done so. The Shî’as openly and directly claim that there is no extra prayer in Ramadân and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not add any prayer in the blessed nights of Ramadân.

With regards to the number of raka´ât of tarâwîh, for the past twelve centuries, the entire ummah without any exception has been performing twenty raka´ât of tarâwîh. This has been the practice of Muslims from the time of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), the Sahâbah (Allah be pleased with them), the Tabi’een and the Ulama (Allah have mercy on him) until two centuries ago, when a newly-born sect called the Ahl al-Hadith introduced the theory that tarâwîh is only eight raka´ât. Till today, tarâwîh in both the Haramain (Makkah and Madînah) is twenty raka´ât and thousands of Muslims observe it there in the month of Ramadân.

If we assume that eight raka´ât of tarâwîh is correct, then it means that the entire Ummah was deviated for all these centuries by performing twenty raka´ât without any Shar´î proof. Nonetheless, it can be conclusively proven that no musjid from the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) till two centuries ago had the practice of eight raka´ât. Had eight raka´ât been the mazhab of anyone, a scholar like Imâm Tirmizi would have mentioned it in his Jâmi, but none of the Sihâh Sittah (six canonical works of hadîth) mention anyone’s practice to be of eight raka´ât in any musjid.

In this brief treatise, an effort has been made to prove that tarâwîh prayer is an additional prayer in Ramadân and that it is indeed twenty raka´ât. It is hoped that this treatise will remove all doubts and clarify the mas’alah for both students and the masses alike. May Allâh accept this humble effort and guide the ignorant. Âmîn.

Chapter One

The Early Stage

Ibn Shihâb narrated that Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) passed away and the people continued observing prayer (tarâwîh) individually and this continued in the era of Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) and the early stages of the khilâfah of Umar (Allah be pleased with him).

Abdur Rahmân Ibn Abdil Qârrî narrates that he went out with Umar (Allah be pleased with him) during one night of Ramadân to the musjid. The people were performing prayer in different groups. Some people were praying alone or a person was performing prayer with a small group behind him. Umar (Allah be pleased with him) expressed his desire of gathering all the people behind one reciter (Qârî) and letting them perform prayer in congregation. He felt this would be much better than people performing prayer in different groups or individually. After he made a firm resolve to implement this desire of his, he gathered the people behind Ubayy Ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him). (Bukhari vol.1 pg.269)

Urwa (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that Âisha (Radiallâhu anhâ) informed him that Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) went out to the musjid during the middle of the night and performed prayer with some men. In the morning the people spoke about it and more people gathered on the second night. In the morning the people again talked about it. On the third night, the musjid was full. On the fourth night, the musjid could not accommodate the large crowd that had gathered. Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) only came out in the morning for the fajr prayer. After completing the fajr prayer, he addressed the people and told them that he knew of their presence in the musjid but did not attend in fear of the tarâwîh becoming compulsory on them. He also feared that they would not be able to practise on this punctually. (Bukhari vol.1 pg.269)

The Term Sunnah

When the word sunnat is used, it refers not only to the sunnat of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) but also to the practice of the four rightly-guided caliphs. This is gleaned from a hadîth of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) wherein he said, “Hold firmly on to my sunnah and the sunnah of the Khulafâ Râshidîn (the four rightly-guided caliphs).”(Abu Dawood vol2 pg 635, Tirmidhi vol.2 pg.108, Sunan Darimi vol.1 pg.43 and Ibn Majah pg.5) This hadîth clearly indicates that the Muslim ummah should bring into practice the sayings and practices of the Khulafâ also. Some Ulamâ like Sheikh Abdul Ghanî Muhaddith Dhelwî have gone to the extent of saying that the word Khulafâ is general and refers to all those people who follow the way of Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace), the four Imâms and the Khalifah Umar Ibn Abdil Azîz. (Injahul Hajah pg.5)

It can be gleaned from the above hadith that just as it is incumbent to follow the sunnah of Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace), so is it essential to adopt the way of the Khulafâ Râshidîn. And in the opinion of some scholars, even the way of the Mujtahidîn should be adopted. All the Khulafâ and Mujtahidîn did not perform less than twenty raka’ât of tarâwîh. Therefore to perform less than twenty raka’ât is against the sunnah of the Khulafâ.

Sheikh Badrudîn Aini (855 A.H.) writes in his commentary on Hidayah:

“There is no doubt that reward is obtained in following Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah be pleased with themâ) and one will be punished if they are not followed because we have been commanded to obey them. the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, ‘Follow the two after me i.e. Abu Bakr and Umar’. Thus adopting their way is essential and to discard such a compulsion necessitates reproach and punishment.” (Majmuatul Fataawa, vol.1 pg.215)

Kamâluddin Ibn Humâm (869 A.H.) writes in Tahrîrul Usûl: “The Hanafi scholars have divided azîmah (resolution) into:

(a) Fard – whose compulsion is categoric,

(b) Wâjib – whole compulsion is most likely,

(c) Sunnah – the method adopted by the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and the Khulafâ Ar-Râshidîn or some of them.

It is mentioned in Tabyîn, the annotation of Hussami that sunnah refers to the way of Dîn whether it is that of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) or that of the Khulafâ Ar-Râshidîn. In short, the term sunnah is general, referring to both the sunnah of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and the sunnah of the Khulafâ. The sunnah of the Khulafâ was of twenty raka´ât tarâwîh. None of them performed anything less. They believed that it was the advice of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) to pray more in the month of Ramadân.

Chapter Two

Various Narrations mentioning Twenty Raka’at

(1) It is reported by Yazîd Ibn Khusayfah from Sâib Ibn Yazîd (Allah be pleased with him) that all the people used to perform twenty raka´ât of tarâwîh in the month of Ramadân during the era of Umar Ibn Khattâb (Allah be pleased with him). (Baihaqi in As Sunaul Kubra, vol.2 pg.496)

This narration has been reported by Baihaqi with a correct chain of narrators in Ma’rifah whilst Imâm Nawawi (676 A.H), Ibnul Iraqi and Imâm Suyuti (911 A.H.) have attested to the correctness of this narration in Khulâsah, Sharh Taqrîb and Masâbîh respectively.

(2) Yazîd Ibn Rumân reports that all the people used to perform twenty three raka´ât in Ramadân during the time of Umar (Allah be pleased with him). (twenty raka´ât tarâwîh and three raka´ât witr). (Baihaqi in Sunaul Kubra vol.2 pg.496) When a report is made of a period, it is not necessary that Yazîd Ibn Rumân should belong to that period. The well-known affairs are generally known and do not require that the narrator be linked with that period. (for a detailed analysis of the hadith, see Raka’ate Tarawih of Sheikh Habibur Rahman Azmi pg.63-68)

This hadîth has also been narrated by Imâm Mâlik (179 A.H.) in his Muwatta. (pg. 9) Shâh Waliullâh writes regarding the Muwatta: Imâm Shâfi’î (204 A.H.) said, “The most authentic book after the Qurân is the Muwatta. The scholars of hadîth are unanimous that whatever it contains is correct in the opinion of Imâm Mâlik and those that conform to his principles.”

Thus, although this hadith is mursal in As-Sunanul Kubra, it is narrated in the Muwatta of Imâm Mâlik. Furthermore, a mursal hadith is accepted by Imâm Abu Hanifa and Imâm Mâlik. Imâm Shâfi’î accepts a mursal hadith if it is given credence by other supporting narrations. (Sharh Nukhbatul Fikr, pg.64) The narrations which follow are sufficient in supporting this narration and lending weight to it.

(3) Hadrat Umar Ibn Khattâb (Allah be pleased with him) commanded a person to perform twenty raka´ât tarâwîh for the people. (Abubakr Ibn Shaibah in his Musannaf, vol.1 pg.483)

(4) Hadrat Ubayy Ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) used to lead the prayers by performing twenty raka´ât tarâwîh and three raka´ât witr. (Abu Dawood pg.202)

(5) The eminent Tâbi´î, Atâ said, “I found the people performing twenty raka´ât tarâwîh and three raka´ât witr.” (Abubakr Ibn Shaibah in his Musannaf, vol.1 pg.483)

(6) Abul Khusaib says that Suwaid Ibn Ghaflah used to make five sittings, i.e. he used to perform twenty raka´ât (and sit after every four). (Baihaqi vol.2 pg. 496)

(7) Nâfi Ibn Umar reports that Ibn Abi Mulaykah used to perform twenty raka´ât for them in Ramadân. (Abubakr Ibn Shaibah in his Musannaf)

(8) It is reported by Saîb Ibn Ubaid that Ali Ibn Rabî´ah used to make five tarwîhas (i.e. read twenty raka´ât and rest after every four) with the people and he used to perform three raka´ât of witr. (Abubakr Ibn Shaibah in his Musannaf)

(9) Ibn Abbas reports that Rasulullah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to perform twenty raka´ât in Ramadân individually and he also performed witr. (Abubakr Ibn Shaibah in his Musannaf and Baihaqi)

This hadith has been accepted by the Ummah and is unanimously practised worldwide. However, it is essential to indicate the partiality of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) when discussing the sanad (chain of narrators) of this hadith.

They have blackened pages upon pages in denigrating one narrator of this hadith viz. Ibrâhim Ibn Uthmân. In their opinion, he is a very weak and unreliable narrator. But the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists), in making Surah Fâtihah fard (or sunnat according to some) in Prayerul janâzah, have used a hadith with the same narrator, Ibrâhim Ibn Uthmân. (Salatur Rasool of Hakim Muhammad Siyalkoti, pg.434) Here, no one has written anything about this narrator nor is any challenge given regarding the authenticity of the hadith.

Hâfiz Ibn Hajar has stated that Ibrâhim Ibn Uthmân was a hâfiz i.e. he was well versed in the field of hadith. No one has criticised his memory. Some scholars like Imâm Shu’bah have criticised his authenticity while others like Yazîd Ibn Hâroon have regarded him as authentic. Thus he is a mukhtalaf fîh narrator (one regarding whom there is a difference of opinion). Thus, the hadith falls in the category of hasan. (Hasan is that category of authentic hadith whose narrator’s retention capacity is lower than that of a Sahih hadith – the highest category of hadith) This is on the assumption that Imâm Shu’bah did not retract from his criticism. However, if his retraction can be established, then this hadith falls in the category of sahîh. (A Sahih hadith is one that is narrated by a person who has perfect retention capacity while the chain of narrators is uninterrupted and there is no deficiency or irregularity in the hadith)

The eminent traditionist of Delhi, Shâh Abdul Azîz states that he is not a weak narrator to the extent that his narration be rejected.

(10) Shaytar Ibn Shakl who was a student of Alî (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he (Alî) used to make Imâmat of twenty raka´ât in Ramadân and he used to make three raka´ât of witr. (Baihaqi vol.2 pg.496)

(11) Abdur Rahmân Sulami narrates that Hadrat Alî (Allah be pleased with him) called the Qurrâ (reciters of the Qur!ân) in Ramadân and commanded one of them to perform twenty raka´ât while Alî (Allah be pleased with him) himself used to lead the witr prayer. (Baihaqi vol.2 pg.496)

(12) It is reported in Qiyâmul Layl by Muhammad Ibn Ka’b Al- Qurazi that all the people used to perform twenty raka´ât tarâwîh in the month of Ramadân. They used to lengthen the qirâ’t and perform three raka´ât of witr. (Qiyamul Layl by Muhammad b. Nasr Marwazi pg.91)

(13) A’mash says that Abdullah Ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him) used to perform twenty raka´ât tarâwîh and three raka´ât of witr. (Qiyamul Layl by Muhammad b. Nasr Marwazi pg.91)

(14) Nâfi, who was the freed slave of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with themâ) and the student of Hadrat Â!isha, Abu Hurairah and Abu Rafi’ (Allah be pleased with them), reports that he saw the people performing 36 raka´ât of tarâwîh and witr. (Tuhfatul Ahwazi vol.2 pg.73) (The reason for the difference in the number of raka’at will be discussed in chapter three)

(15) Dawûd Ibn Qays reports that during the era of Umar Ibn Abdil Aziz (101 A.H) and Abân Ibn Uthmân (105 A.H.), he saw the people of Madinah performing thirty six raka´ât. Hadrat Umar Ibn Abdil Aziz had ordered the Qurrâ to perform thirty six raka´ât. (Qiyamul Layl by Muhammad b. Nasr Marwazi pg.91-92)

(16) Abdul Aziz bin Rafai’ (Rahimahullâh) mentions that Ubay bin Ka’ab (Allah be pleased with him) used to perform twenty raka!ât for the people and thereafter three rakaât of witr. (Atharus Sunan pg.53)

(17) Ubay bin Ka’ab (Allah be pleased with him) reports that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) instructed him saying that if he lead the prayer it will be better. Thereafter he said, “Perform twenty rakaât for the people.” Atharus Sunan pg.255)

(18) It is reported by Hasan that Umar Ibnul Khattâb (Allah be pleased with him) gathered the people with Ubayy Ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) and he used to perform twenty rakaât with them. (Abu Dawood, pg.1429 -Arabian print)

There are two prints of Sunan Abi Dâwûd. Some prints have ‘twenty rakaât’ while others have ‘twenty nights’. Just as the two different qirâ’at of the Qurân are accepted, so too should the two differing narrations of a hadith. Shaikh Muhammad Ali As-Sâbooni of Makkah has also narrated this hadith in his book, Al-Hadyun Nabawi As-Sahîh fî Prayerit-Tarâwîh. Thus, to accuse the Ulama of Deoband of interpolation is highly irresponsible. Furthermore, Allâmah Dhahabi has reported this hadith with the words ‘twenty rakaât’ in his Siyar Âlâmin Nubalâ. This was centuries before Deoband could even be established.

Sheikh Ibn Taymiyyah states that it has been proven that Ubayy Ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) used to perform twenty rakaât of tarâwîh as the Imâm of the congregation and thereafter he used to perform three raka!ât of witr. Thus most of the scholars have deduced it to be sunnah because he performed this among the Muhâjirîn and Ansâr and no one had any objection. (Fataawa Ibn Taymiyyah, new edition, vol.33 pg.112)

Ibn Taymiyyah states elsewhere that if a person performs tarâwîh like the mazhab of Imâm Abu Hanifah, Imâm Shâfiî and Imâm Ahmed viz. twenty rakaât or thirty six raka!ât like Imâm Mâlik or twenty three or eleven, then he has done well. (Fataawa Al-Kubra, vol.4 pg.176) He is also of the opinion that most of the Muslims practise on twenty rakaât. (Majmuah Fataawah Ibn Taymiyyah, vol.22 pg.272)

There are many more narrations proving the number of rakaât. Abdullâh Ibn Masûd (Allah be pleased with him) also used to perform twenty rakaât. (Tuhfatul Ahwazi vol.2 pg.75)

Until the era of Imâm Malik (179 A.H.), the standard custom of Madinah was of thirty six raka´ât. Sometimes due to the number of raka´ât of witr, it used to be forty one raka´ât. Imâm Tirmizi has mentioned the custom of Madinah to be of forty one raka´ât. Thirty six raka´ât were performed wherever the followers of Imâm Malik went.

In Makkah, until the era of Atâ Ibn Abi Rabâh (114 A.H.), twenty raka´ât used to be performed. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah) Imâm As Shâfiî (204 A.H.) agrees with this view. Imâm Tirmizi states that most of the scholars have accepted the narration of Ali and Umar (Radiallahu anhuma) amongst others – namely twenty raka´ât. (Tirmidhi) Nâfi’ Ibn Umar states that Ibn Abi Mulaykah (117 A.H.) used to make them perform twenty raka´ât.

Abdullâh Ibn Masûd (32 A.H.), Suwaid Ibn Ghaflah (81 A.H), Ali Ibn Rabîah, Sufyân Thauri, Abdullah Ibn Mubârak (181 A.H.) of Khurasân, Dawûd Zâhiri, Imâm Abu Hanîfa (150 A.H.) and all his followers, Imâm Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (241 A.H.) and all his followers, Imâm Shâfi’î and all his followers used to perform twenty raka´ât.

This in short was the practice of the pious precursors from the era of Umar (Allah be pleased with him) till about the middle of the third century in the main centres of learning such as Makkah, Madinah, Kufa, Basrah, Baghdad, Khurasân, etc. All the authentic books of the four mazhabs amongst others are unanimous on the practice of twenty raka´ât. (for more details see Bidayatul Mujtahid vol.1 pg. 210; Tirmidhi vol.1 pg.112; Kashful Qana pg.276; Sharh Muhtahil Iradat vol.1 pg. 256, Mughni Ibn Qudamah; Sharh Nawai ala Muslim)

Ijma

Mullâ Ali Qâri states that that the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with them) have made consensus (Ijmâ) on the practice of twenty raka!ât.(Mirqat vol.3 pg.194) Allâmah Ibn Abdul Barr Mâliki and Ibn Hajar Makki have narrated Ijmâ on twenty raka!ât. Allâmah Qâdi Khan, Allâmah Shamsuddîn, Allâmah Qastalâni, Sheikh Muhammad Zakarriyya Kandhelwi, Allâmah Abdul Hayy Lucknowi and Nawwâb Siddiq Hasan have narrated this Ijmâ in their works. (Fataawa Qadi Khan, Sharh Muqanna vol.1 pg.852, Sharh Bukhari of Qastalani) Imâm Nawawi states that the practice of twenty continued from the pious precursors and has been firmly established. Ibn Qudâmah has stated in Al-Mughni that this is like Ijmâ. (Al Mughni vol.1 pg.803) Ibn Hajar Makki has stated that the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with them) were unanimous on twenty. (Mirqat) If one only takes this proof, it is sufficient for the establishment of twenty raka!ât because the sunnah of the Khulafâ is equivalent to the sunnah of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Huzaifa (Allah be pleased with him) has narrated that Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Follow the the two after me.” and he indicated to Abu Bakr and Umar (Allah be pleased with him). (Tirmidhi vol.2 pg. 229) Had twenty rakaât not been a sunnah, who was a greater enemy of bid’ah (innovation) than Umar (Allah be pleased with him)? And if he had erred, the Sahaba (Allah be pleased with them) would not have accepted it. They most certainly knew of a statement or action of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) whether it has reached us with a correct chain of narrators or not. Imâm Abu Yusuf states that he asked Imâm Abu Hanifa about tarâwîh and the practice of Umar (Allah be pleased with him). Imâm Abu Hanifa replied that tarâwîh is sunnat muakkadah (an emphasised sunnah) and Umar (Allah be pleased with him) did not invent it himself nor was he an innovator. He initiated it due to a practice which he learnt from Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam). (Maraqil Falah pg.8)

Sheikh Atiyyah Muhammed Sâlim, who is a judge of the supreme court of Madina Munawwarah and an orator and teacher in Masjidun Nabawi (Alâ Sâhibihi As-salâm) has written a book in which he has recorded the history of tarâwîh for more than a thousand years in Masjidun Nabawi (Alâ Sâhibihi As-salâm). He has recorded the historical events dating from the era of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wasallam right up to 1390 of the Hijrah calender i.e. almost fourteen centuries. From his writings it is ascertained that during this lengthy period, tarawîh prayer was never less than twenty rakaât in Masjidun Nabawi (Alâ Sâhibihi As-salâm). The practice and norm was only twenty rakaât or more (never less than that). After recording the historical facts till page 151 of his book, Sheikh Atiyyah poses a question to the readers. During this lengthy period, were eight rakaât the maximum limit or were less than twenty rakaât ever performed?! For fourteen hundred years, the tarawîh prayer was between twenty and forty rakaât. No person possessing Imân ever said that to perform more than eight rakaât is not permissible.

Before that in 1376 Hijri, a renowned scholar of hadith of India, Moulanâ Habibur Rahman Azmi wrote a book entitled “Raka’ât-e-Tarâwîh” in which he writes:

“The clamour that the Ghair Muqallidîn (the group of people who do not follow any Imâm or Mazhab) of India had started for the past hundred years or so was never heard of before. Throughout the Islamic world, twenty rakaât or more were being performed. Similarly, from the time of Umar Allah be pleased with him till the time of this uproar, there was no masjid in the world where eight rakaât of tarawîh used to be performed, which implies that for approximately twelve hundred and fifty years, all the Muslims (Ahle Sunnah) used to regard twenty rakaât or more than twenty raka!ât as sunnah and worthy of being practised. After such a long period, this sect has made a new manifestation – that up to now what the Muslims were doing was incorrect. The correct version is only eight rakaât.” Thereafter Ml. Habibur Rahman Azmi discusses from the books of hadith with references regarding what transpired during these twelve hundred and fifty years. He states that the practice of the Muslims (of twenty rakaât tarawîh) is not contrary to hadith, but rather is in conformity to the sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and the rightly-guided Khulafa (Allah be pleased with them).

Sheikh Atiyyah, in a similar manner, has proven the performance of twenty rakaât from history and the hadith. He has also quoted from the books of the four Imâms (Malik, Shafi, Ahmed and Abu Hanifa Allah have mercy on him) and has subsequently quoted the following authentic hadith:

“Hold steadfast unto my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa (i.e. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali Radiallahu anhuma.”(Mishkat pg.30)

We can challenge anyone to prove that any jurist or muhaddith has rejected twenty rakaât of tarâwîh from the era of Umar till the era of the British Empire in India. We also challenge anyone to prove from authentic Islamic literature that there was a protest against adopting this practice.

Chapter Three

Some of the narrations report more than twenty raka´ât. In fact, for more than 150 years, the standard practice in Madinah was of thirty six raka´ât. The reason for this number (36) is that some saints used to perform four raka´ât individually at every interval (tarwîhah), thus adding an additional number of sixteen to the total of twenty. However, only twenty raka´ât were performed with congregation. Eventually the additional four raka´ât of every interval were omitted and twenty raka´ât became the standard practice of every city. Although the names of all the Ulama are not explicitly mentioned in the books of Fiqh, nonetheless this much is certain that after the Khairul Quroon (the era of the Prophet Allah bless him & give him peace and the Sahâba), all the Ulama of the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamâ’at gave a verdict of twenty raka´ât.

The names of some of the Ulama (scholars) who upheld the view of twenty raka´ât are as follows :

Sheikhul Islam Imâm Ibn Abdul Barr Qurtubi (463 A.H.) : His opinion is that twenty raka´ât tarâwîh and three raka´ât witr is the most authentic narration. (Masabih)

Imâm Ghazali (550 A.H.) writes: Tarâwîh is twenty raka´ât, its method is well known and it is sunnah muakkadah. (Ihya ul Uloom vol.1 pg.139)

Sayyid Abdul Qadir Jailani (561 A.H.) writes: Tarâwîh prayer is a sunnah of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and it comprises of twenty raka´ât. (Ghunyatut Talibin pg.464)

Imâm Ibn Qudâma Hambali (620 A.H) states: According to Imâm Ahmad Ibn Hambal, the most acceptable view is of twenty raka´ât. (Al Ghina vol.1 pg.802)

Imâm Muhîudîn Nawawi (676 A.H.), the commentator of Sahîh Muslim writes: Remember that tarâwîh is a unanimously accepted sunnah of the Muslims. It is twenty raka´ât. (Kitabul Azkaar pg.83)

Sheikh Ibn Taymiyah (728 A.H.) writes: It has been accepted that Ubayy Ibn Kab used to lead the prayer for the people by performing twenty raka´ât in Ramadân and three raka´ât witr. Accordingly, most of the Ulama regarded twenty raka´ât as sunnat because Ubayy used to lead the congregation of the Muhâjirîn and the Ansâr and none of them rejected his act. (Fataawa Ibn Taymiyyah vol.23 pg.112)

Allamah Subki (756 A.H.) writes in Minhâj: Have conviction that the number of raka´ât in these nights has not been established from the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) whilst our mazhab is of performing twenty raka´ât.

Allamah Badrudîn Aini (855 A.H.) has proved conclusively in his annotation of Sahîh Bukhârî, the authenticity of twenty raka´ât tarâwîh. (Aini Sharh Bukhari)

Hâfiz Ibn Hajar Asqalâni (852 A.H.) states that the practice of twenty raka´ât has remained in vogue. (Al Masabih)

Abdul Wahhâb Sharâni (973 A.H.) is of the opinion that twenty raka´ât of tarâwîh in Ramadân is more virtuous with jamâ’at (congregation). (Mizan Sha’rani)

Ibn Âbidîn Shâmi (1203 A.H.) writes: Tarâwîh is sunnah muakkadah because the Khulafâ Ar-Râshidîn were punctual on it. It is twenty raka´ât after Esha prayer. This is the view of the Jumhûr (the majority) and all the people practise it in the east and the west. (Ad Durrul Mukhtar vol.1 pg.511)

Chapter Four

Two Incorrect Claims

Some people are of the opinion that eight raka´ât of tarâwîh have been transmitted from the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) and that Sayyidinâ Umar (Allah be pleased with him) had given the decree of eight raka´ât. (for details of the nazhab and proofs of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists), see Tuhfatul Ahwazi vol.2 pg.72-76)

The proponents of the first claim quote the following hadîth of Sahîh Bukhârî :

Hadrat Â’isha (Radiallâhu anhâ) was asked about the prayer of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace). She replied, “the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not exceed eleven raka!ât in Ramadân nor in any other month. He used to perform four rakaât and do not ask me about their beauty and their length. Thereafter he used to perform four raka!ât and do not ask me about their beauty and their length. Then he used to perform three raka!ât.” Hadrat Aisha asked him, ” O the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) of Allah, do you sleep before performing witr.” He replied , “O Aisha, my eyes sleep but not my heart.” (Bukhari pg.154 , Qadimi Kutub Khana Karachi)

This hadîth apparently seems to indicate that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to perform eight raka!ât tarâwîh and three rakaât witr.

Sheikh Nâsirudîn Albâni has quoted this hadith in his book ‘Prayer at Tarâwîh’. The Salafis and the Ghair Muqallidîn also hold this view.

Nâsiruddîn Albâni, a Salafi scholar, was expelled from Saudi Arabia when he wrote a book on tarâwîh and in it regarded twenty rakâat tarâwîh as an innovation. In this way he labelled the Ahlus Sunnah of fourteen centuries as innovators.

Whenever any person becomes a salafi, his first task is to discredit the mutawâtir prayer (the unanimously accepted salaah performed throughout the ages) which has been performed by the Ummah for fourteen centuries and he introduces a new prayer which clashes with the mutawâtir prayer. This is done in order that the Muslims should dispute and clash at least five times daily and every musjid should be made a battlefield. Even if he does not know Arabic, by studying translations, he compiles books and sometimes calls it Prayerur Rasool or Prayerun Nabi. Thus, he objects to the prayer of the Hanafis, Shâfiîs, Mâlikis and Hambalis and presents a new prayer for the general masses.

Albâni, by adopting the Salafi sect has also fulfilled this obligation of his. He has written a book, “Sifat Prayerin Nabi…”. His very reason for writing this book in his words is that till today (1376 A.H.), no concise book on the prayer of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) has been written. Therefore this gigantic task has fallen on his shoulders. He has gathered pieces from approximately 162 books in compiling this work. In this book, he has not only found fault with the prayer of all four mazhabs, but he has even found errors of the prayer of the Salafis. Ever since the formation of this sect, they have regarded the hadith:

“When the Imâm recites, remain silent.” as incorrect. Albâni has accepted this hadith as correct. (Sifatu Salatin Nabi … pg.95)

Another hadith which they always disregarded is:

“Whoever has an Imâm, the recitation of his Imâm is a recitation for him.” Albani has also accepted this hadith.

With regards to tarâwîh, Albani claims that jamât is mustahab (preferable). This firstly contradicts the Salafi belief because according to Fatâwâ Ulamâ Hadith, (vol.6, p.388), jamâ’at is a condition. However, Albani thought that if he had to adopt this view, he would not be able to use the above-mentioned hadith of Âisha (Radiallâhu anhâ) because it refers to a prayer performed individually.

In fact, Professor Abdullah Bahawalpuri claims that even the name tarâwîh was adopted after the era of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace). Thus according to the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists), even the word ‘tarâwîh’ is an innovation! (Rasail Bahawalpuri, pg 101, first edition)

To substantiate his claim of jamâ’at in tarâwîh, Albani quotes the hadith of Thalabah Ibn Abi Mâlik Al-Qurazi and then he goes on to say that this hadith is mursal hasan and has a supporting hadith (shâhid) in Abu Dawûd. But he does not mention what Imâm Abu Dawûd states after the hadith: “This hadith is not strong as Muslim Ibn Khalid is a weak narrator.” (Abu Dawood vol.1 pg.217)

He has conveniently omitted this text as it goes against his proof. Furthermore, a mursal hadith in his terminology is weak, yet here he has called it hasan and has used it for his own expediency. This hadith also goes against the accepted hadith of Sahîh Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim. (Bukhari vol.1 pg. 101; Muslim vol.1 pg.266)

Definition of Sunnat

Once Moulana Muhammad Amîn Safdar had a debate with Moulana Muhammad Rafîq Pisarwari of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) sect. Moulana Muhammad Rafîq wrote his claim thus:

“Eight rakaât of tarâwîh are sunnat muakkadah with jamât in Ramadân.”

Moulana Muhammad Amîn Safdar asked him to first give the definition of tarâwîh and sunnat. But his definition should only be from the Qur!ân and hadith, not plagiarism from any Ummati’s book of jurisprudence.

Moulana Muhammad Rafîq replied that sunnat is what Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) himself practised always.

Moulana Muhammad Amîn said that this definition was not concise and nor was it taken from the Qurân or hadith. Turning to the audience, he told them that they all knew that azân and iqâmah is sunnah muakkadah, yet Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) never gave azân once. According to Molvi Rafîq’s definition, neither is azân sunnat nor iqâmah. Furthermore, Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) himself practised all the farâid (compulsory acts). According to the above definition, even the farâid become sunnats. The issue was very clear and the audience realised that Moulana Muhammad Rafîq could not define sunnat. He asked for a respite of three months to give the definition but even after three months was unable to produce anything. In defeat, he called the police to terminate the debate.

The first claim (that eight raka´ât of tarâwîh have been transmitted from the Prophet Allah bless him & give him peace) is incorrect for the following reasons :

The First Reason

In this hadîth, the words ‘nor in any other month’ i.e. besides Ramadân, in other months he used to perform eleven raka´ât as well shows clearly that this question to Âisha concerned the Tahajjud Prayer which he performed in all twelve months of the year. Hadrat Âisha has reported the following hadîth:

“During the last ten nights of Ramadân, Rasulullah used to fasten his lower garment, remain awake the whole night and awaken his family also.” (Bukhari vol.1 pg.271)

Upon hearing this, the inquirer probably thought that he (i.e. the Prophet Allah bless him & give him peace) increased his tahajjud in Ramadân. Hadrat Âisha replied that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace)’s habit was of eleven lengthy raka´ât. This clearly proves that this hadîth concerns Tahajjud and not tarâwîh.

The Second Reason

On the assumption that this hadîth concerns tarâwîh, then too it is incorrect to say that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) never performed more than eleven raka´ât because another hadîth of Âisha states that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to perform thirteen raka´ât.

The commentators of hadîth such as Hafiz Ibn Hajar have reconciled these two differing ahâdith by stating that they refer to different conditions and times. At some occasions the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to perform thirteen raka´ât and at others only eleven raka´ât. (Fathul Bari vol.3 pg.14)

Moulânâ Abdur Rahmân Mubârakpûri (1353 A.H.), a respected scholar of the Ahl al-Hadith sect has also accepted the fact that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) performed thirteen raka´ât. (Tuhfatul Ahwazi vol.2 pg.3)

This hadîth of ‘thirteen raka´ât’ categorically negates the claim that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) never performed more than eleven raka´ât.

Sheikh Suyuti has quoted the statement of Allamah Bâjî that the words of Â’isha (Radiallâhu anhâ) ‘did not exceed’ indicate his habit which was done most of the time and not his perpetual habit. (Tanwirul Hawalik vol.1 pg.142)

The Third Reason

In this hadîth Hadrat Âisha states that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to read four lengthy raka´ât, then another four and finally witr. Hence, in order to practise this hadîth, one has to perform four raka´ât with one salâm, then four raka´ât with one salâm and finally three witr with one salâm. The proponents of eight raka´ât tarâwîh do not practise in this manner. Consequently, to use this hadîth against those that perform twenty raka´ât is illogical.

The Fourth Reason

Imâm Muhammad Ibn Nasr Marwazi (294 A.H.) has written a chapter on the number of raka´ât of tarâwîh in his book ‘Qiyamul Layl’. In this chapter, he has mentioned numerous ahâdith but he has not in the slightest way made any indication towards this hadîth of Âisha (Radiallâhu anhâ) which is the most authentic. This clearly shows that this hadîth concerns nafl prayer and not tarâwîh.

The Fifth Reason

At the end of this hadîth, Hadrat Âisha enquired from the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) whether he slept before witr or not and the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) replied that his eyes slept but not his heart. There is absolutely no mention in any hadîth that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) performed eight raka´ât tarâwîh and then slept while the Sahâba (Radiallâhu ahhum) remained waiting. However, he used to perform tahajjud at home and sometimes slept before witr. Furthermore, had it been tarâwîh, Hadrat Âisha would have stood in the ladies’ row behind the men and the men would have known about it first. The fact that the men did not know indicates that it was tahajjud prayer being performed in the privacy of the home and not tarâwîh as is wrongly assumed.

The Sixth Reason

Generally the Muhaddithîn (Scholars of hadîth) categorize every hadîth by giving it a title. The title indicates the subject matter of the hadîth. The fact that all the Muhaddithîn have not given a title of tarâwîh to this hadîth, indicates that in their opinion it refers to nafl prayer and not tarâwîh.

Imâm Muhammad, a renowned jurist, mentions that the cause of the following hadith is that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not make any addition to Tahajjud because of the additional prayerof Ramadân viz. tarâwîh. This is the relation between the hadith of Â’isha (Radiallahu anhâ) and the chapter heading.

This hadîth of Â’isha (Radiallahu anhâ) appears several times in Sahîh Bukhâri in the following chapters:

1. Kitâbut Tahajjud – Chapter on the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace)’s worship at night in Ramadân and other months. (Vol.1 Page 154) (this reference and the subsequent ones refer to the Qadimi Kutub Khana print of Sahih Bukhari, Karachi, Pakistan)

2. Kitâbus Saum – Chapter on the virtue of worship in Ramadân. (Vol.1 Page 269)

3. Chapter – the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace)’s eyes used to sleep, not his heart.(Vol.1 Page 504)

4. Chapter on witr. (Vol.1 Page 135)

These captions clearly indicate a reference to tahajjud prayer. Nowhere is there the slightest indication of tarâwîh. Imâm Muslim, Imâm Mâlik, Imâm Abdur Razzâq, Imâm Abu Dawûd, Imâm Nisâi, Imâm Tirmizi, Imâm Abu Awânah, Imâm Ibn Khuzaimah, Imâm Marwazi, Imâm Dârimi, the author of Bulooghul Marâm and Mishkât have all mentioned this hadith in their works but not one of them has mentioned it under the chapter of tarâwîh.

Imâm Muslim, Abu Dawûd and Tirmizi have narrated this hadith under Qiyâmul Layl (worship at night viz. tahajjud) (Muslim vol.1 pg254; Abu Dawood vol.1 pg.189; Tirmidhi vol.1 pg.99). Imâm Tirmizi has not even mentioned eight rakaât under tarâwîh. This indicates that up till the time of Imâm Tirmizi, there was no scholar of the opinion that tarâwîh is eight rakaât nor did anyone understand this hadith to refer to tarâwîh.

Imâm Mâlik and Imâm Nisai have narrated this hadith in the chapter of witr. (Muwatta Imam Malik pg.102, Abu Dawood vol.1 pg.248)

This hadith has also been narrated in the chapter of tahajjud in Mishâtul Masâbîh, Musannaf Abdur Razzâq, Abu Awânah, Sahîh Ibn Khuzaimah, and Sunan Dârimi.

Hâfiz Ibn Hajar states: “It has appeared to me that the wisdom in not performing more than eleven raka´ât is that tahajjud and witr are prayers of the night while the prayers of the day which are Zuhr (4 raka´ât), Asr (4 raka´ât) and Maghrib (3 raka´ât) also total eleven. Consequently it was suitable for the prayer of the night to conform in number to the prayer of the day.” (Fathul Bari vol.3 pg.16)

The Seventh Reason

Â’isha (Radiallahu anhâ) never used this hadith against those who performed twenty rakaât during the eras of Umar, Uthman and Ali (Allah be pleased with him). In fact, this hadith of tahajjud has been narrated by many Sahâba (Allah be pleased with him) but not one of them has quoted it against those who performed twenty rakaât tarâwîh. After the era of the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with him), the Tâbiîn and Taba-Tâbiîn also performed twenty raka!ât but not one them used this hadith against those who performed twenty rakat.

Even the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) do not practise this hadith according to its purport. The hadith has the words, ‘besides Ramadân’ but they do not perform tarâwîh out of Ramadân. The hadith mentions the prayer in units of four; they perform it in units of two. The hadith mentions the prayer being performed at home; they perform it in the musjid. The hadith mentions three raka!ât of witr; they perform one rakât. The hadith mentions the prayer being performed individually; they perform it in congregation. The hadith mentions sleeping before witr; they do not sleep before the witr.

Chapter Five

Tahajjud and Tarawih are Seperate Salats

Tahajjud and tarâwîh Prayer differ in the following ways:

(1) Tahajjud was ordained by Allâh Ta!âlâ. Allâh Taâlâ told the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace): “O the one wrapped in a blanket, stand up (in worship) at night except a little…” (Surah 73 Verse 2)

The following verse also indicates the compulsion of Tahajjud: “And perform the tahajjud prayer at night, it would be an additional prayer for you.” (Surah 17 Verse 79)

No other verse informs us that in Ramadân we are exempted from its compulsion. Regarding tarâwîh, the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) feared that it would be made compulsory on the ummah.

On the other hand, Tarawîh was initiated by the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace). It is mentioned in a hadith, “It is a month in which Allâh has made fasting compulsory while I (the Prophet Allah bless him & give him peace) have made the Tarawîh sunnah.” (Nisai vol.1 pg.308; Ibn Majah pg.94) The two acts have been described in comparison to each other.

(2) Tahajjud was ordained in Makkah whilst tarâwîh was prescribed in Madinah.

(3) It is unanimously accepted that the number of raka´ât of tahajjud have been transmitted from the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace). They are a maximum of thirteen raka´ât if witr is included and a minimum of 7 raka´ât including witr. However, as regards tarawîh, no fixed number has been narrated with regard to the nights when the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) led the prayer of tarawîh in the musjid. Accordingly, there is a difference of opinion among the Mujtahidîn. Some say thirty, some thirty six or more. Thus the narration of Imâm Bukhâri (in which eight raka!ât have been mentioned) cannot refer to tarâwîh. According to this narration it can be deduced that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not add anything in his Tahajjud Prayer in the month of Ramadân, because he intended another prayer in this month known as tarâwîh. What Âisha (Radiallâhu anhâ) meant in this hadith was that Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s tahajjud was not different in Ramadân nor in any other month. However, in Ramadân, he increased his worship tremendously by performing tahajjud as well as tarâwîh. (Durrul Manthur vol.1 pg.185; Bukhari vol.1 pg. 271; Muslim vol.1 pg.372; Abu Dawood vol.1 pg.190; Sunan Darimi vol.1 pg.285)

(4) The following statement is mentioned in Muqanna, an authentic book of the Hanbali Mazhab:

“Tarâwîh is twenty raka´ât performed in Ramadân in congregation. If a person wants to perform tahajjud as well, then he should not read witr after tarâwîh. Witr should be delayed till after the tahajjud.” (Muqanna pg.184)

From the above quotation it can be clearly seen that even Imâm Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (241 A.H.), the teacher of Imâm Bukhâri understood tarâwîh and tahajjud to be separate prayers. Imâm Bukhâri also had a similar practice. He used to perform tarâwîh prayer with his students in the early part of the night during which he used to complete one Qur!ân. At the time of sehri he used to perform prayer (tahajjud) individually. (Tarikh Baghdad)

Talq Ibn Ali (Radiallahu anhu) a Sahabi, offered the tahajjud prayer after completing tarâwîh with other Sahâba (Radiallahu anhum). (Sunan Nisai)

(5) Tahajjud is normally performed after sleeping while tarâwîh is performed immediately after Esha. (Sahih Bukhari vol.1 pg.269. Umar radhiallahu anhu encouraged people not to discard tahajjud salat in the latter portion of the night while also performing tarawih in the first portion.)

(6) Tahjjud is performed during the whole year while tarâwîh is specific with Ramadân. (Even the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) accept this. See Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.243) The hadith of Â’isha (Radiallâhu anhâ) mentions the prayer which is performed the whole year viz. tahajjud.

(7) Jamât (congregation) is a condition for tarawîh. (Fatawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.243) If one performs tarâwîh alone, it will not be accepted. The hadith of Âisha (Radiallâhu anhâ) mentions the prayerwhich is performed individually viz. tahajjud. (Majmauz Zawaid vol.3 pg.172 and Atharus Sunan pg.200)

There are other differences between these two prayers which have been omitted for the sake of brevity. Moulânâ Rashîd Ahmad Gangohî (1323 A.H) has conclusively proved their differences in his book ‘Ar-Ray An-Najîh’. Similarly Moulânâ Qâsim Nanotwî has also explained their differences in his book ‘Al-Haqq As-Sarîh’.

Allâmah Anwar Shâh Kashmiri holds the view that if a person does not perform tarâwîh prayer but he performs tahajjud prayer in the month of Ramadân, he will be absolved of the liability of performing tarâwîh and will not be accused of neglecting tarâwîh prayer. This is only Allamah’s view and not the view of the majority of the scholars. He does not claim that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not perform tahajjud prayer when he performed tarâwîh at home in the early part of the night. In this sense he believes that tahajjud is not other than tarâwîh.

However, he clearly gives a warning to those who uphold the practice of eight rakaât only. He says. “Whoever performs eight rakaât only, and separates himself from the majority and begins accusing them of innovation should be careful of his consequence.

Chapter Six

The Second Hadith

The second hadîth which the proponents of eight raka´ât quote is as follows:

It is narrated by Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) performed eight raka´ât and witr. We gathered in the musjid the following night hoping that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) would come again. We remained waiting till the morning. the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, “I feared that witr will become incumbent on you.” (Therefore he did not come the previous night).

Analysis Of This Hadith

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) have to prove three points from this hadith. Firstly, they must prove that the hadith is correct and authentic. Secondly, they must prove that there was continuous practice (muwâzabah) on eight rakaât. Thirdly, that Hadrat Jabir used this hadith against all those who performed twenty raka!ât tarâwîh in Musjidun Nabawi in congregation during the eras of Umar, Uthman and Ali (Allah be pleased with him) and that he (Jâbir) made his own musjid to perform eight rakaât.

As for the authenticity of this hadith, one narrator of this hadith is Yaqoob Ibn Abdillah Al-Qummi. Ibn Kathîr has rejected this hadith and stated that Yaqoob was a Shia and his narrations cannot be accepted. (Al Bidayah wan Nihayah vol.8 pg.375) This narration of his goes against the Ijmâ of the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with them).

There is only one person narrating from Jâbir viz. Isâ Ibn Jâriyah. Hâfiz Dhahabi and Hâfiz Ibn Hajr have mentioned this narrator in Mizânul Itidâl (vol.2 pg.311) and Tahzîb-at-Tahzîb respectively. They have quoted Yahyâ Ibn Maîn, who is the leading scholar in the science of ‘Jarh wat Tadîl’ (the science of invalidating a hadîth or declaring it reliable). According to him, Isâ Ibn Jâriyah is not an authentic narrator. Imâm Nisai and Abu Dawûd regard him as munkarul hadîth. (A technical term meaning narration of an unworthy narrator that contradicts the narration of a group of trustworthy narrators) Nisai has also called him matrûk.(The narration of a person that is suspected of fabricating hadith) Saji Uqaili regards him as weak while Ibn Adi (365 A.H.) says that his narrations are not mahfûz.(The narration of a trustworthy person that is in conflict with the narration of those who are more trustworthy than himself) Only Abu Zur’ah and Ibn Hibbân (354 A.H.) have given him any credibility. It is a principle of hadîth that jarh (declaring invalid) precedes tadîl (declaring reliable). Hence Isâ will be regarded as majrûh (unreliable), especially when one considers the words used by Imâm Nisai and Abu Dawûd for him.

Moulana Abdur Rahman Mubarakpuri (1353 A.H.) [of the Ahl al-Hadith sect] has written that the ahadîth of a narrator who is known as munkarul hadîth, are worthy of being rejected. (Ibkarul Matn pg.191) Accordingly, this hadîth of Isâ is not acceptable especially when he is the only narrator from Jâbir and does not have any substantiating narrator (mutâbi’).

Muhammad Ibn Humaid Râzi, another narrator in the chain of this hadîth is also regarded as a weak narrator, thus rendering this hadîth unacceptable. (Taqrib) It makes one wonder why the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) mostly depend upon weak ahâdith.

Moulana Muhammad Amîn Safdar once had a debate with Hâfiz Abdul Qâdir Ropri of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) sect. The former very aptly told him that the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) do not have any right to classify any hadith as Sahîh or daîf because they do not accept anyone’s statement besides those of Allah and His Rasool. And Allah and His Rasool have not classified any hadith as Sahîh or daîf. Since they have not classified the ahâdith, the Ummah has to make the decision. This will be by means of examining the hadith if it was practised in the khairul quroon (the era of the Sahâba and Tabiîn), it will be accepted, but if it was not accepted in the khairul quroon, it will be rejected. The muhaddithîn have also accepted this principle. A maqbool hadith (accepted one) is one which the Ummah has accepted even if it does not have a correct sanad (chain of narration). (Tadribur Rawi of Sheikh Suyuti)

Chapter Seven

The Second Claim

To substantiate the second claim that Hadrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) gave the command of eight raka´ât, the following hadîth of Muwatta Imâm Mâlik has been quoted: Sâib Ibn Yazîd has reported that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) ordered Ubayy Ibn Kab (Allah be pleased with him) and Tamim Dâri (Allah be pleased with him) to perform eleven raka´ât (including three witr) for the people. (Muwatta Imam Malik – Asahhul Matabi, pg 98; Qiyamul Layl pg.91)

If we analyse the chain of transmission of this hadîth, we notice that Muhammad Ibn Yusuf narrates from Sâib Ibn Yazîd. Muhammad has five students and the narration of each student differs from the next. The five students are:

(1) Imâm Mâlik

(2) Yahyâ Ibn Qattân

(3) Abdul Azîz Ibn Muhammad

(4) Ibn Ishâq and

(5) Abdul Razzâq

Their narrations are as follows:

(1) Imâm Malik says that Umar ordered Ubayy Ibn Ka’b and Tamim Dari to perform eleven raka´ât.

What practice occurred thereafter is not mentioned nor is Ramadân mentioned.

(2) Yahyâ Ibn Qattân says that Umar made the people gather with Ubayy Ibn Ka!b and Tamim Dâri and both of them began performing eleven raka´ât.

Hadrat Umar’s command is not mentioned nor is any mention of Ramadân made. It is not clear whether the two performed eleven raka´ât separately or collectively but it is clear that witr cannot be led two times while the two Imâms are together.

(3) Abdul Aziz says that they used to perform eleven raka´ât in the era of Umar.

Neither is the command mentioned nor are Ubayy, Kab or Ramadân mentioned.

(4) Ibn Ishâq says that they used to perform thirteen raka´ât in Ramadân during the era of Umar.

Neither is the command of Umar mentioned nor is Ubayy or Tamim mentioned. Instead of eleven raka´ât, thirteen are mentioned.

(5) Abdur Razzâq says that Umar gave the command of twenty one raka´ât.

In this narration, twenty one raka´ât are mentioned instead of eleven.

Besides the narration of Imâm Malik, eleven raka´ât cannot be established from the other narrations. Due to this difference, the narrator, Ibn Ishâq gave preference to thirteen while Ibn Abdul Barr Mâliki (463 A.H.) also preferred twenty one. Therefore this narration is mudtarib with regards to the number and hence unacceptable. (Mudtarib is a hadith that is transmitted in different manners so that the contents of each transmission differ and it is not possible to give reference to any particular transmission) The narration of twenty one is the preferred narration.

The above was an analysis of Muhammed Ibn Yusuf’s narration via Sâib Ibn Yazîd. Now let us examine the narration of Yazîd Ibn Khasîfah via Sâib which is mentioned in As-Sunan Al-Kubrâ of Baihaqî. (As Sunan Al-Kubra vol.2 pg.496)

Abu Zi’b narrates from Yazîd Ibn Khasîfah who reports from Sâib Ibn Yazîd that the people used to perform twenty raka´ât in the month of Ramadân during the era of Umar.

Imâm Nawawi (676 A.H), Iraqi (806 A.H) and Suyuti (911 A.H) amongst others have accepted the authenticity of this hadîth. (Tuhfatul Akhyar pg.192 and Irshadus Sari pg.74)

Muhammad Ibn Jafar has quoted the same statement from Yazîd as Abu Zi’b. This narration is mentioned in Marifatus Sunan of Baihaqi. Allamah Subki (756 A.H) and Mullâ Ali Qâri (1014 A.H) have stated in Sharh Minhâj and Sharh Muwattâ respectively that the chain of narrators of this hadîth is correct. (Tuhfatul Ahwazi vol.2 pf.75)

From the above narration we can clearly see that both the students of Yazîd unanimously narrate the fact that during Umar’s era, twenty raka´ât was the standard practice. On the contrary, the five students of Muhammad Ibn Yusuf quote Sâib differently.

In such a situation, the correct approach would be to rely on the narration of Yazid Ibn Khasîfa. However the Ahl al-Hadith have unjustly discarded this narration and adopted the doubtful one of Muhammad Ibn Yusuf which has differing versions. This goes against the principles of hadîth.

Sheikh Atiyyah states: “The practise of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wasallam of performing thirteen raka!ât as narrated by Ibn Abbas Allah be pleased with him, the six rakaât after the Esha prayer and the two rakaât with which Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wasallam used to commence the prayerul-layl as narrated by Hazrat Aisha Allah be pleased with him, makes a total of twenty one rakaât. This is why Umar Allah be pleased with him instructed Ubay bin Kâb Allah be pleased with him to perform twenty one raka!ât for the people. Thus its (twenty one rakaât) proof exists in this hadith. It is not merely the opinion of Umar Radiallahu anhu. (Salatut Tarawih, Sheikh Atiyyah, pg.22)

Moulana Fadlur-Rahman Azami states that even if the proof of twenty one or twenty three rakaât is not from any marfû hadith (i.e. a narration containing the actual speech of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and is only based on the view of Umar Allah be pleased with him, then also, to adhere to it will be regarded as sunnah because Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wasallam has ordered us to adhere to the ways of the rightly-guided Khulafâ. Thus to adhere to it in actual fact is to practise on a marfû! hadith.

Chapter Eight

Regarding tarâwîh prayer, the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) and Salafis have not been able to answer the following questions using Sahîh Ahâdith that do not have any contradictory narrations (muta’ârid):

(1) Is there any prayer with the name of tarâwîh in the Sahîh ahâdîth as the other prayers have been mentioned like Fajr, Zuhr etc?

(2) Hadrat Âisha (Allah be pleased with him) states that Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to perform four rakaât at night and then rest for a long while. (As Sunanul Kubra of Bayhaqi, vol.2 pg.497) Imâm Bayhaqi has regarded this hadith as weak but the entire ummah has named this prayer as tarâwîh and have accepted this hadith due to the practice of tarâwîh being unanimously accepted by the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with him.). Due to this acceptance by the ummah, the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) have also named it tarâwîh.

(3) Hadrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) used to perform four raka!ât and relax for the amount of time it took a person to go to Mount Sila.

(4) According to the scholars of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists), prayerut-tarâwîh is that prayer which is performed in Ramadân after Isha in congregation and it is called tarâwîh because the people rest (tarwîhah) after every four rakaât. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.241)

(5) The scholars of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) state that Qiyâme Ramadân (worship in Ramadân) is more general than tarâwîh because jamât (congregation) is a condition for tarâwîh. If one performs it alone, it will not be valid in contrast to Qiyâme Ramadân for which jamât is not a condition. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.243)

(6) They also reiterate that the statement of Allâmah Kirmâni that Qiyâme Ramadân unanimously refers to tarâwîh is unique. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.241)

(7) If one performs tarâwîh during the first part of the night, it is tarâwîh and if one performs it in the latter part, it is tahajjud. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.329)

(8) Tahajjud occurs throughout the year while tarâwîh is specific with Ramadân. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.230)

(9) One who performs tarawîh after Ishâ prayer in Ramadân, can perform tahajjud during the last part of the night. Tahajjud is not performed in the earlier part of the night. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.241)

If the above-mentioned points from number 4 till number 9 are established from any correct hadith, can the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) mention those ahâdith. If not, then are the writers of these statements not mushriks (polytheists) by making taqlîd of other human beings. (The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) believe that one who makes taqlid of a human is a mushrik (polytheist).

(10) Tarâwîh and tahajjud are both one. They should prove this from the Qurân or Sahîh hadith. They should not use qiyâs (analogy) and become shaytâns or adopt taqlîd and become mushriks.

(11) Did Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) say that there is a prayer which is called tahajjud for eleven months and tarâwîh in the twelfth?

(12) Did Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) say that this prayer is nafl for eleven months and sunnat in the twelfth?

(13) Did Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) say that the time of this prayer for eleven months is the last part of the night and in the twelfth month it is immediately after Ishâ?

(14) Did Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) say that one should perform this prayer individually for eleven months and with congregation in the twelfth?

(15) Did Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) say that for eleven months it is not sunnat to complete the Qurân but in the twelfth month it becomes sunnat?

(16) A person performed tarâwîh in congregation for three days only during his whole life. Now he does not perform it. Is he sinful?

(17) Are those muhaddithîn and fuqahâ who have written separate chapters for tahajjud, tarâwîh and witr rejectors of hadith?

(18) Some Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) specify the condition that we must prove that Hadrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) himself participated in the tarâwîh. Is this condition according to any hadith? If a person says that you must prove that Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) wrote the Qurân themselves, otherwise I will not accept it, or he says that you must prove that Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) himself gave the first azân of Jumuah otherwise I will not accept this azân, is this statement of his correct?

(19) Has it been proven that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) himself performed tarâwîh in congregation, performed tarâwîh in the first part of the night, performed tarâwîh during the whole month in the musjid, performed witr with congregation in Ramadân, recited the whole Qurân or heard its recital or will these acts also be discarded?

(20) Moulana Dawûd Ghaznawî (of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) sect) used to announce that eight rakaât of tarâwîh is the sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) while the remaining twelve are mustahab. This can terminate all disputes. (Fataawa Ulama Hadith vol.6 pg.265)

(21) Madrasah Rahmâniyyah (of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists)) announces every year that more than eight rakaât of tarâwîh is correct and a means of greater reward. (Fatawa Satariya vol.3 pg.19)

Are points number 20 and 21 established from a hadith or are they the isolated (shâz) statements of Ibn Humâm? (Ibn Humam has permitted eight raka’at -Fathul Qadir vol.1 pg.334 – Moulana Zafar Ahmad Uthmani has rejected this view with complete proofs – See I’laus Sunan vol.7 pg.68-72)

(22) A hadith has been quoted in Fatâwâ Ulamâ-e-Hadith (vol.6 p.47 and vol.6 p.88) in which it is mentioned that if a person performs an optional act in Ramadân, it will be as if he performed an obligatory duty out of Ramadân. Will a person who performs twenty rakaât tarâwîh obtain this reward or not?

(23) Do those who prevent others from this reward not fall within the purview of the verse, “preventer of virtue, have you seen the one who prevents the servant (of Allah) when he performs prayer?” (Surah Al Qalam verse 12)

(25) Rahmâni Sâhib (of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists)) has written in Anwârul Masâbîh (p.262) that why should Umar (Allah be pleased with him) prevent those who performed twenty rakaât from doing so. It was not some prohibited act. He also reiterates that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) did not reject twenty rakat. According to him, this is the view of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists). From this it is apparent that those who write booklets and pamphlets against twenty rakaât tarâwîh are not Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) but are in fact Munkirîn-e-Sahâba (rejectors of the Sahâba Allah be pleased with them).

(26) Molvi Muhammad Uthmân Dehlwi, a very respected scholar of the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists), stated that the one who performs four rakaât of Maghrib prayer, his Maghrib will not be fulfilled although three rakaât are included in four. Similarly, he states, that the one who performs twenty rakaât tarâwîh, his eleven rakaât have not been fulfilled. (Raf’ul Ikhtilaaf pg.5) This satanic analogy of Molvi Uthmân makes the entire Ummah innovators. Is it mentioned in any hadith that the one who performs twenty, his eight are not performed?

Conclusion

From the facts quoted above it becomes manifestly clear that:

(1) The practice of the entire ummah from the era of Umar till recently was of twenty raka´ât or more. If at any point in time, any individual was of the opinion of less than twenty raka´ât, then there is no evidence of this practice occurring in any musjid.

(2) The establishment of twenty raka´ât by Hadrat Umar’s command or by his tacit approval cannot be denied by any scholar of hadîth.

(3) The Ahl al-Hadith, by relating eleven raka´ât tarâwîh to the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) have differed with the pious predecessors. Allamah Ibn Taymiyah, Allamah Subki, Shaukani, Ml. Wahîduz Zaman and Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan (1307 A.H) amongst others have in no way indicated that Hadrat Âisha’s hadîth (quoted on page 26) refers to tarâwîh. Are the Ahl al-Hadith and Salafis of today more learned than the above-mentioned scholars?

(4) The objections which the Ahl al-Hadith raise on the narrations of twenty raka´ât are contrary to the principles of hadîth. In fact even Nawâb Siddiq Hasan (of the Ahl al-Hadith) admits that a person who performs twenty raka´ât has complied with the sunnah. When this is the case, then why should there be such an insistence on performing eight raka´ât which does not have the approval of the learned elders of the ummah.

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) of today have differed with Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) in the following practices:

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) begin tarâwîh in the first night of the month with congregation whereas Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not do this throughout his life. This is not a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) but a sunnah of the Khulafâ (Allah be pleased with him).

Nowadays, the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) perform tarâwîh during the whole month of Ramadân with congregation whereas Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) told the people to perform their prayer at home. Performing tarâwîh for the whole month in congregation is a sunnah of the Khulafâ and not a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace).

Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) only performed tarâwîh in congregation during one year in the last ten days of Ramadân for three nights. Thus performing tarâwîh every year in congregation is a sunnah of the Khulafâ and not a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace).

To perform tarâwîh immediately after Isha is a sunnah of the Khulafâ. The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) perform tarâwîh immediately after Isha whereas Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) did not do so.

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) complete the whole Qurân in tarâwîh which is not a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) but a sunnah of the Khulafâ (Allah be pleased with him).

The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) sleep away after tarâwîh which is not a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace). Hadrat Âisha (Allah be pleased with him) states that when Ramadân began, Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) never used to sleep the whole night. However, it has been established that the Sahâba (Allah be pleased with him) slept.

It is reported in Sahîh Bukhârî (vol.1 p.269) that Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to awaken his wives during the last ten nights. The Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) do not awaken their wives.

Nowadays the Ahl al-Hadith (Literalists) recite the Qurân in tarâwîh by holding the Qurân, turning the pages, leaving it on the floor during ruku and lifting it up again at the beginning of the next rakât. This practice is in no way a sunnah of Nabi (Allah bless him & give him peace).

May Allâh Tâla grant us all the correct understanding of Dîn and protect us from the deviations of the misguided.

Al Qur’ân

Sahîh Bukhârî

Sahîh Muslim

Sunan Abî Dawûd

Sunan Ibn Mâjah

Sunan Nisâî

Muwatta Imâm Mâlik

Sunanul Kubrâ – Baihaqîi

Sharh Muwattâ – Mullâ Ali Qârî

Mussanaf Ibn Abî Shaibah

I’lâus Sunan

Tahzîb – Hafiz Ibn Hajar

Taqrîb – Hafiz Ibn Hajar

Tuhfatul Akhyâr

Tanwîrul Hawâlik – Sheikh Suyuti

Irshâdus Sârî

Jâmi Tirmizî – Zurqanî

Dars-e-Tirmizi – Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani

Khairul Masâbîh Fî Adadit-Tarâwîh – Moulanâ Khair Muhammad Jalandrî

Raka!âte Tarâwîh – Moulanâ Habibur Rahmân Azami

Ar-Ra’yun Najîh fî Adadi Rakaâtit Tarâwîh – Moulana Rashîd Ahmad Gangohi

Fatâwâ Rashidiyyah – Moulana Rashîd Ahmad Gangohi

Masâbîhut Tarâwîh – Moulana Qâsim Nanotwi

Tahqîqut Tarâwîh – Sheikh Riâya

Published by: Madrasah Arabia Islamia, P.O.Box9786, Azaadville, 1750, South Africa

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